Provided by: systemd_245.4-4ubuntu3_amd64 bug


       systemd-analyze - Analyze and debug system manager


       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [>file.svg]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [>]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] unit-paths

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] exit-status [STATUS...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] condition CONDITION...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] syscall-filter [SET...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] calendar SPEC...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timestamp TIMESTAMP...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timespan SPAN...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] cat-config NAME|PATH...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILE...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] security UNIT...


       systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance statistics and
       retrieve other state and tracing information from the system and service manager, and to
       verify the correctness of unit files. It is also used to access special functions useful
       for advanced system manager debugging.

       If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.

   systemd-analyze time
       This command prints the time spent in the kernel before userspace has been reached, the
       time spent in the initial RAM disk (initrd) before normal system userspace has been
       reached, and the time normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these
       measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all system services have
       been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully finished initialization or the disk is

       Example 1. Show how long the boot took

           # in a container
           $ systemd-analyze time
           Startup finished in 296ms (userspace)
  reached after 275ms in userspace

           # on a real machine
           $ systemd-analyze time
           Startup finished in 2.584s (kernel) + 19.176s (initrd) + 47.847s (userspace) = 1min 9.608s
  reached after 47.820s in userspace

   systemd-analyze blame
       This command prints a list of all running units, ordered by the time they took to
       initialize. This information may be used to optimize boot-up times. Note that the output
       might be misleading as the initialization of one service might be slow simply because it
       waits for the initialization of another service to complete. Also note: systemd-analyze
       blame doesn't display results for services with Type=simple, because systemd considers
       such services to be started immediately, hence no measurement of the initialization delays
       can be done. Also note that this command only shows the time units took for starting up,
       it does not show how long unit jobs spent in the execution queue. In particular it shows
       the time units spent in "activating" state, which is not defined for units such as device
       units that transition directly from "inactive" to "active". This command hence gives an
       impression of the performance of program code, but cannot accurately reflect latency
       introduced by waiting for hardware and similar events.

       Example 2. Show which units took the most time during boot

           $ systemd-analyze blame
                    32.875s pmlogger.service
                    20.905s systemd-networkd-wait-online.service
                    13.299s dev-vda1.device
                       23ms sysroot.mount
                       11ms initrd-udevadm-cleanup-db.service
                        3ms sys-kernel-config.mount

   systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]
       This command prints a tree of the time-critical chain of units (for each of the specified
       UNITs or for the default target otherwise). The time after the unit is active or started
       is printed after the "@" character. The time the unit takes to start is printed after the
       "+" character. Note that the output might be misleading as the initialization of services
       might depend on socket activation and because of the parallel execution of units. Also,
       similar to the blame command, this only takes into account the time units spent in
       "activating" state, and hence does not cover units that never went through an "activating"
       state (such as device units that transition directly from "inactive" to "active").
       Moreover it does not show information on jobs (and in particular not jobs that timed out).

       Example 3. systemd-analyze critical-chain

           $ systemd-analyze critical-chain
           └─pmie.service @35.968s +548ms
             └─pmcd.service @33.715s +2.247s
               └─ @33.712s
                 └─systemd-networkd-wait-online.service @12.804s +20.905s
                   └─systemd-networkd.service @11.109s +1.690s
                     └─systemd-udevd.service @9.201s +1.904s
                       └─systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service @7.306s +1.776s
                         └─kmod-static-nodes.service @6.976s +177ms

   systemd-analyze dump
       This command outputs a (usually very long) human-readable serialization of the complete
       server state. Its format is subject to change without notice and should not be parsed by

       Example 4. Show the internal state of user manager

           $ systemd-analyze --user dump
           Timestamp userspace: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp generators-start: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp generators-finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp units-load-start: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp units-load-finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           -> Unit proc-timer_list.mount:
                   Description: /proc/timer_list
           -> Unit
                   Description: Main user target

   systemd-analyze plot
       This command prints an SVG graphic detailing which system services have been started at
       what time, highlighting the time they spent on initialization.

       Example 5. Plot a bootchart

           $ systemd-analyze plot >bootup.svg
           $ eog bootup.svg&

   systemd-analyze dot [pattern...]
       This command generates textual dependency graph description in dot format for further
       processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use a command line like systemd-analyze dot |
       dot -Tsvg >systemd.svg to generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order or
       --require is passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement
       dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.  *.target) may be given
       at the end. A unit dependency is included in the graph if any of these patterns match
       either the origin or destination node.

       Example 6. Plot all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with "avahi-daemon"

           $ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg >avahi.svg
           $ eog avahi.svg

       Example 7. Plot the dependencies between all known target units

           $ systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' \
                 | dot -Tsvg >targets.svg
           $ eog targets.svg

   systemd-analyze unit-paths
       This command outputs a list of all directories from which unit files, .d overrides, and
       .wants, .requires symlinks may be loaded. Combine with --user to retrieve the list for the
       user manager instance, and --global for the global configuration of user manager

       Example 8. Show all paths for generated units

           $ systemd-analyze unit-paths | grep '^/run'

       Note that this verb prints the list that is compiled into systemd-analyze itself, and does
       not communicate with the running manager. Use

           systemctl [--user] [--global] show -p UnitPath --value

       to retrieve the actual list that the manager uses, with any empty directories omitted.

   systemd-analyze exit-status [STATUS...]
       This command prints a list of exit statuses along with their "class", i.e. the source of
       the definition (one of "glibc", "systemd", "LSB", or "BSD"), see the Process Exit Codes
       section in systemd.exec(5). If no additional arguments are specified, all known statuses
       are are shown. Otherwise, only the definitions for the specified codes are shown.

       Example 9. Show some example exit status names

           $ systemd-analyze exit-status 0 1 {63..65}
           NAME    STATUS CLASS
           SUCCESS 0      glibc
           FAILURE 1      glibc
           -       63     -
           USAGE   64     BSD
           DATAERR 65     BSD

   systemd-analyze condition CONDITION...
       This command will evaluate Condition*=...  and Assert*=...  assignments, and print their
       values, and the resulting value of the combined condition set. See systemd.unit(5) for a
       list of available conditions and asserts.

       Example 10. Evaluate conditions that check kernel versions

           $ systemd-analyze condition 'ConditionKernelVersion = ! <4.0' \
                   'ConditionKernelVersion = >=5.1' \
                   'ConditionACPower=|false' \
                   'ConditionArchitecture=|!arm' \
           test.service: AssertPathExists=/etc/os-release succeeded.
           Asserts succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionArchitecture=|!arm succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionACPower=|false failed.
           test.service: ConditionKernelVersion=>=5.1 succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionKernelVersion=!<4.0 succeeded.
           Conditions succeeded.

   systemd-analyze syscall-filter [SET...]
       This command will list system calls contained in the specified system call set SET, or all
       known sets if no sets are specified. Argument SET must include the "@" prefix.

   systemd-analyze calendar EXPRESSION...
       This command will parse and normalize repetitive calendar time events, and will calculate
       when they elapse next. This takes the same input as the OnCalendar= setting in
       systemd.timer(5), following the syntax described in systemd.time(7). By default, only the
       next time the calendar expression will elapse is shown; use --iterations= to show the
       specified number of next times the expression elapses. Each time the expression elapses
       forms a timestamp, see the timestamp verb below.

       Example 11. Show leap days in the near future

           $ systemd-analyze calendar --iterations=5 '*-2-29 0:0:0'
             Original form: *-2-29 0:0:0
           Normalized form: *-02-29 00:00:00
               Next elapse: Sat 2020-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 11 months 15 days left
                  Iter. #2: Thu 2024-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 4 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #3: Tue 2028-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 8 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #4: Sun 2032-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 12 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #5: Fri 2036-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 16 years 11 months left

   systemd-analyze timestamp TIMESTAMP...
       This command parses a timestamp (i.e. a single point in time) and outputs the normalized
       form and the difference between this timestamp and now. The timestamp should adhere to the
       syntax documented in systemd.time(7), section "PARSING TIMESTAMPS".

       Example 12. Show parsing of timestamps

           $ systemd-analyze timestamp yesterday now tomorrow
             Original form: yesterday
           Normalized form: Mon 2019-05-20 00:00:00 CEST
                  (in UTC): Sun 2019-05-19 22:00:00 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @15583032000
                  From now: 1 day 9h ago

             Original form: now
           Normalized form: Tue 2019-05-21 09:48:39 CEST
                  (in UTC): Tue 2019-05-21 07:48:39 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @1558424919.659757
                  From now: 43us ago

             Original form: tomorrow
           Normalized form: Wed 2019-05-22 00:00:00 CEST
                  (in UTC): Tue 2019-05-21 22:00:00 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @15584760000
                  From now: 14h left

   systemd-analyze timespan EXPRESSION...
       This command parses a time span (i.e. a difference between two timestamps) and outputs the
       normalized form and the equivalent value in microseconds. The time span should adhere to
       the syntax documented in systemd.time(7), section "PARSING TIME SPANS". Values without
       units are parsed as seconds.

       Example 13. Show parsing of timespans

           $ systemd-analyze timespan 1s 300s '1year 0.000001s'
           Original: 1s
                 μs: 1000000
              Human: 1s

           Original: 300s
                 μs: 300000000
              Human: 5min

           Original: 1year 0.000001s
                 μs: 31557600000001
              Human: 1y 1us

   systemd-analyze cat-config NAME|PATH...
       This command is similar to systemctl cat, but operates on config files. It will copy the
       contents of a config file and any drop-ins to standard output, using the usual systemd set
       of directories and rules for precedence. Each argument must be either an absolute path
       including the prefix (such as /etc/systemd/logind.conf or /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf),
       or a name relative to the prefix (such as systemd/logind.conf).

       Example 14. Showing logind configuration

           $ systemd-analyze cat-config systemd/logind.conf
           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf

           # /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf.d/20-test.conf
           ... some override from another package

           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf.d/50-override.conf
           ... some administrator override

   systemd-analyze verify FILE...
       This command will load unit files and print warnings if any errors are detected. Files
       specified on the command line will be loaded, but also any other units referenced by them.
       The full unit search path is formed by combining the directories for all command line
       arguments, and the usual unit load paths (variable $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH is supported, and
       may be used to replace or augment the compiled in set of unit load paths; see
       systemd.unit(5)). All units files present in the directories containing the command line
       arguments will be used in preference to the other paths.

       The following errors are currently detected:

       ·   unknown sections and directives,

       ·   missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,

       ·   man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the system,

       ·   commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in the system or not

       Example 15. Misspelt directives

           $ cat ./user.slice


           $ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
           [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
           [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
           Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
              Unit different.service failed to load:
              No such file or directory.
           Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
           user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

       Example 16. Missing service units

           $ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
           ==> ./a.socket <==

           ==> ./b.socket <==

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
           Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
           Service b@0.service not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.

   systemd-analyze security [UNIT...]
       This command analyzes the security and sandboxing settings of one or more specified
       service units. If at least one unit name is specified the security settings of the
       specified service units are inspected and a detailed analysis is shown. If no unit name is
       specified, all currently loaded, long-running service units are inspected and a terse
       table with results shown. The command checks for various security-related service
       settings, assigning each a numeric "exposure level" value, depending on how important a
       setting is. It then calculates an overall exposure level for the whole unit, which is an
       estimation in the range 0.0...10.0 indicating how exposed a service is security-wise. High
       exposure levels indicate very little applied sandboxing. Low exposure levels indicate
       tight sandboxing and strongest security restrictions. Note that this only analyzes the
       per-service security features systemd itself implements. This means that any additional
       security mechanisms applied by the service code itself are not accounted for. The exposure
       level determined this way should not be misunderstood: a high exposure level neither means
       that there is no effective sandboxing applied by the service code itself, nor that the
       service is actually vulnerable to remote or local attacks. High exposure levels do
       indicate however that most likely the service might benefit from additional settings
       applied to them.

       Please note that many of the security and sandboxing settings individually can be
       circumvented — unless combined with others. For example, if a service retains the
       privilege to establish or undo mount points many of the sandboxing options can be undone
       by the service code itself. Due to that is essential that each service uses the most
       comprehensive and strict sandboxing and security settings possible. The tool will take
       into account some of these combinations and relationships between the settings, but not
       all. Also note that the security and sandboxing settings analyzed here only apply to the
       operations executed by the service code itself. If a service has access to an IPC system
       (such as D-Bus) it might request operations from other services that are not subject to
       the same restrictions. Any comprehensive security and sandboxing analysis is hence
       incomplete if the IPC access policy is not validated too.

       Example 17. Analyze systemd-logind.service

           $ systemd-analyze security --no-pager systemd-logind.service
             NAME                DESCRIPTION                              EXPOSURE
           ✗ PrivateNetwork=     Service has access to the host's network      0.5
           ✗ User=/DynamicUser=  Service runs as root user                     0.4
           ✗ DeviceAllow=        Service has no device ACL                     0.2
           ✓ IPAddressDeny=      Service blocks all IP address ranges
           → Overall exposure level for systemd-logind.service: 4.1 OK 🙂


       The following options are understood:

           Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied default.

           Operates on the user systemd instance.

           Operates on the system-wide configuration for user systemd instance.

       --order, --require
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), selects which dependencies
           are shown in the dependency graph. If --order is passed, only dependencies of type
           After= or Before= are shown. If --require is passed, only dependencies of type
           Requires=, Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If neither is passed, this
           shows dependencies of all these types.

       --from-pattern=, --to-pattern=
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this selects which
           relationships are shown in the dependency graph. Both options require a glob(7)
           pattern as an argument, which will be matched against the left-hand and the
           right-hand, respectively, nodes of a relationship.

           Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit name must match one
           of the values. When tests for both sides of the relation are present, a relation must
           pass both tests to be shown. When patterns are also specified as positional arguments,
           they must match at least one side of the relation. In other words, patterns specified
           with those two options will trim the list of edges matched by the positional
           arguments, if any are given, and fully determine the list of edges shown otherwise.

           When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see above), also show units,
           which finished timespan earlier, than the latest unit in the same level. The unit of
           timespan is seconds unless specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".

           Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages listed in Documentation=.

           Invoke unit generators, see systemd.generator(7). Some generators require root
           privileges. Under a normal user, running with generators enabled will generally result
           in some warnings.

           With cat-files, show config files underneath the specified root path PATH.

           When used with the calendar command, show the specified number of iterations the
           specified calendar expression will elapse next. Defaults to 1.

           When used with the calendar command, show next iterations relative to the specified
           point in time. If not specified defaults to the current time.

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username and hostname
           separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname may optionally be suffixed by a port ssh
           is listening on, separated by ":", and then a container name, separated by "/", which
           connects directly to a specific container on the specified host. This will use SSH to
           talk to the remote machine manager instance. Container names may be enumerated with
           machinectl -H HOST. Put IPv6 addresses in brackets.

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name to connect to.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

           Print a short version string and exit.

           Do not pipe output into a pager.


       On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.


           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. If neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER
           nor $PAGER are set, a set of well-known pager implementations are tried in turn,
           including less(1) and more(1), until one is found. If no pager implementation is
           discovered no pager is invoked. Setting this environment variable to an empty string
           or the value "cat" is equivalent to passing --no-pager.

           Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK").

           Users might want to change two options in particular:

               This option instructs the pager to exit immediately when Ctrl+C is pressed. To
               allow less to handle Ctrl+C itself to switch back to the pager command prompt,
               unset this option.

               If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS does not include "K", and the pager that is invoked
               is less, Ctrl+C will be ignored by the executable, and needs to be handled by the

               This option instructs the pager to not send termcap initialization and
               deinitialization strings to the terminal. It is set by default to allow command
               output to remain visible in the terminal even after the pager exits. Nevertheless,
               this prevents some pager functionality from working, in particular paged output
               cannot be scrolled with the mouse.

           See less(1) for more discussion.

           Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if the invoking terminal is
           determined to be UTF-8 compatible).

           The value must be a boolean. Controls whether colorized output should be generated.
           This can be specified to override the decision that systemd makes based on $TERM and
           what the console is connected to.

           The value must be a boolean. Controls whether clickable links should be generated in
           the output for terminal emulators supporting this. This can be specified to override
           the decision that systemd makes based on $TERM and other conditions.


       systemd(1), systemctl(1)