Provided by: coreutils_8.32-4.1ubuntu1.2_amd64 bug


       ls - list directory contents


       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...


       List  information  about  the  FILEs  (the  current  directory  by default).  Sort entries
       alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

              with -l, scale sizes by SIZE when printing them; e.g., '--block-size=M';  see  SIZE
              format below

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with  -lt:  sort  by,  and  show,  ctime  (time of last modification of file status
              information); with -l: show ctime and sort  by  name;  otherwise:  sort  by  ctime,
              newest first

       -C     list entries by columns

              colorize the output; WHEN can be 'always' (default if omitted), 'auto', or 'never';
              more info below

       -d, --directory
              list directories themselves, not their contents

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

              likewise, except do not append '*'

              across -x, commas -m,  horizontal  -x,  long  -l,  single-column  -1,  verbose  -l,
              vertical -C

              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

              group directories before files;

              can  be  augmented  with  a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) disables

       -G, --no-group
              in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l and -s, print sizes like 1K 234M 2G etc.

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

              follow each command line symbolic link

              that points to a directory

              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)

              hyperlink file names; WHEN can be 'always' (default if omitted), 'auto', or 'never'

              append indicator with style WORD  to  entry  names:  none  (default),  slash  (-p),
              file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k, --kibibytes
              default  to  1024-byte  blocks  for disk usage; used only with -s and per directory

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information  for  the  file
              the link references rather than for the link itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print entry names without quoting

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of nongraphic characters

              show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is 'ls' and output is
              a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

              use quoting style WORD for  entry  names:  literal,  locale,  shell,  shell-always,
              shell-escape,  shell-escape-always,  c, escape (overrides QUOTING_STYLE environment

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size, largest first

              sort by WORD instead of name: none  (-U),  size  (-S),  time  (-t),  version  (-v),
              extension (-X)

              change  the  default  of using modification times; access time (-u): atime, access,
              use; change time (-c): ctime, status; birth time: birth, creation;

              with -l, WORD determines which time to show; with --sort=time, sort by WORD (newest

              time/date format with -l; see TIME_STYLE below

       -t     sort by time, newest first; see --time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with  -lt:  sort  by,  and show, access time; with -l: show access time and sort by
              name; otherwise: sort by access time, newest first

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              set output width to COLS.  0 means no limit

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
              print any security context of each file

       -1     list one file per line.  Avoid '\n' with -q or -b

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is  10*1024).   Units  are
       K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y  (powers  of  1024) or KB,MB,... (powers of 1000).  Binary prefixes can be
       used, too: KiB=K, MiB=M, and so on.

       The TIME_STYLE argument can be full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale,  or  +FORMAT.   FORMAT  is
       interpreted  like  in date(1).  If FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies
       to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files.  TIME_STYLE prefixed with 'posix-'  takes
       effect  only  outside the POSIX locale.  Also the TIME_STYLE environment variable sets the
       default style to use.

       Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with  --color=never.
       With  --color=auto,  ls  emits  color  codes  only  when standard output is connected to a
       terminal.  The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings.  Use the  dircolors
       command to set it.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).


       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.


       GNU coreutils online help: <>
       Report any translation bugs to <>


       Copyright  ©  2020  Free  Software  Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or
       later <>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO  WARRANTY,
       to the extent permitted by law.


       Full documentation <>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) ls invocation'