Provided by: atlc_4.6.1-5_amd64 bug


       create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler - bitmap generator for microstrip coupler (part of atlc)


       create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler [-b bmp_size] [-v] w s g h t Er1 Er2 filename


       This  man page is not a complete set of documentation - the complexity of the atlc project
       makes man pages not an ideal way to document it, although out of completeness,  man  pages
       are  produced.   The  best  documentation  that  was  current  at the time the version was
       produced should be found on your hard drive, usually at
       although it might be elsewhere if your system administrator chose to install  the  package
       elsewhere.   Sometimes,   errors   are  corrected  in  the  documentation  and  placed  at before a new release of atlc is  released.   Please,  if  you
       notice  a  problem  with the documentation - even spelling errors and typos, please let me


       create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler is a pre-processor for atlc, part of atlc properties  of
       a  two  and  three  conductor electrical transmission line of arbitrary cross section. The
       program create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler is used as a  fast  way  of  generating  bitmaps
       (there  is  no  need  to  use  a  graphics program), for microstrip couplers. Hence if the
       dimensions of a coupler are known the odd mode, even mode, differential  mode  and  common
       mode impedances can be found. If you know what impedances you require and want to find the
       dimentions, then use find_optimal_dimensions_for_microstrip_coupler  instead.  This  makes
       repeated  calls to  create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler. The structure for which bitmaps are
       generated by create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler is shown below.

       G                                                     G  |
       G                                                     G  |
       G                                                     G  |
       G                                                     G  |
       G                                                     G  |
       G                                                     G  |
       G |                                                   G  |
       G |                                                   G  |
       G |                                                   G  H
       G v       <--g--><--w--><---s---><--w--><--g-->       G  |
       GGGGGGGGGG       ccccccc         ccccccc       GGGGGGGG  |
       GGGGGGGGGG.......ccccccc.........ccccccc.......GGGGGGGG  |
       G.^.....................................^.............G  |
       G.|.....................................|.............G  |
       G.|t.Dielectric, permittivity=Er2.......h.............G  |
       G.|...(3.7 for FR4 PCB).................|.............G  |
       G.......................................V.............G  |

       The parameters 'W' and 'H' and the inner dimensions of the a metal enclosure.  These  will
       generall  be  quite  large compared to the dimensions of the the PC - the diagram above is
       not to scale.  The gap between the two coupled lines is s, the width of the coupled  lines
       is w and the spacing between the edges of the coupled lines and the groundplane on the top
       is g. Often, the upper groundplane is not close to the coupled lines, in which case g will
       be  quite large. The thickness of the dielectic is h. Note that he is just the dielectric,
       and does not include the thichkness of the copper on the double-sided PCB.  The  thickness
       of  copper  on the top layer is t. It is immaterial what the thickkness of the lower layer
       is. The relative permittivity above  the  dielectric  is  normally  1,  but  the  relative
       permittivity  of  the dielectric material will need to be either pre-defined or defined on
       the command lines. See the section colours below for more information on dielectrics.

       The bitmap is printed to the file specified as the last argument

       The bitmaps produced by create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler are 24-bit bit  colour  bitmaps,
       as are required by atlc.

       The  permittivities  of  the  bitmap, set by 'Er1' and 'Er2', determine the colours in the
       bitmap. If Er1 or Er2 is 1.0, 1.0006, 2.1, 2.2, 2.33, 2.5, 3.3, 3.335, 3.7, 4.8,  10.2  or
       100,  then  the  colour  corresponding  to  that permittivity will be set according to the
       colours defined in COLOURS below. If Er1 is not one of those permittivities, the region of
       permittivity  Er1  will  be set to the colour 0xCAFF00. If Er2 is not one of those values,
       then the region of the image will be set to the colour 0xAC82AC. The program atlc does not
       know  what  these  two  permittivites are, so they atlc, must be told with the comand line
       option -d, as in example 4 below.


       -C Causes create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler to print copyright and licensing  information.
       -b bitmapsize
       is  used  to  set  the  size  of  the bitmap, and so the accuracy to which atlc is able to
       calculate the transmission line's  properties.  The  default  value  for  'bitmapsize'  is
       normally  4, although this is set at compile time. The value can be set anywhere from 1 to
       15, but more than 8 is probably not sensible.

       Causes create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler to print some data to stderr. Note, nothing extra
       goes to standard output, as that is expected to be redirected to a bitmap file.


       The 24-bit bitmaps that atlc expects, have 8 bits assigned to represent the amount of red,
       8 for blue and 8 for green. Hence there are 256 levels of red, green and  blue,  making  a
       total  of 256*256*256=16777216 colours.  Every one of the possible 16777216 colours can be
       defined precisely by the stating the exact amount of red, green and blue, as in:

       red         = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000
       green       = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00
       blue        = 000,000,255 or 0x0000ff
       black       = 000,000,000 or 0x000000
       white       = 255,255,255 or 0xffffff
       Brown       = 255,000,255 or 0xff00ff
       gray        = 142,142,142 or 0x8e8e8e

       Some colours, such as pink, turquoise, sandy, brown, gray etc may mean slightly  different
       things  to  different people. This is not so with atlc, as the program expects the colours
       below to be EXACTLY defined as given. Whether you feel the colour is sandy or yellow is up
       to  you,  but if you use it in your bitmap, then it either needs to be a colour recognised
       by atlc, or you must define it with a command line  option  (see  OPTIONS  and  example  5
       red    = 255,000,000 or 0xFF0000 is the live conductor.
       green  = 000,255,000 or 0x00FF00 is the grounded conductor.
       blue   = 000,000,000 or 0x0000FF is the negative conductor

       All bitmaps must have the live (red) and grounded (green) conductor. The blue conductor is
       not currently supported, but it will be used to indicate a negative conductor, which  will
       be needed if/when the program gets extended to analyse directional couplers.

       The   following   dielectrics   are   recognised   by   atlc   and   so  are  produced  by

       white     255,255,255 or 0xFFFFFF as Er=1.0    (vacuum)
       pink      255,202,202 or 0xFFCACA as Er=1.0006 (air)
       L. blue   130,052,255 or 0x8235EF as Er=2.1    (PTFE)
       Mid gray  142,242,142 or 0x8E8E8E as Er=2.2    (duroid 5880)
       mauve     255.000,255 or 0xFF00FF as Er=2.33  (polyethylene)
       yellow    255,255,000 or 0xFFFF00 as Er=2.5    (polystyrene)
       sandy     239,203,027 or 0xEFCC1A as Er=3.3    (PVC)
       brown     188,127,096 or 0xBC7F60 as Er=3.335  (epoxy resin)
       Turquoise 026,239,179 or 0x1AEFB3 as Er=4.8    (glass PCB)
       Dark gray 142,142,142 or 0x696969 as Er=6.15   (duroid 6006)
       L. gray   240,240,240 or 0xDCDCDC as Er=10.2  (duroid 6010)
       D. orange 213,160,067 or 0xD5A04D as Er=100.0 (mainly for test purposes)


       Here are a few examples of the use of create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler.  Again,  see  the
       html documentation in atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html for more examples.

       In  the  first example, there is just an air dielectric, so Er1=Er2=1.0.  The inner of 1x1
       inches (or mm, miles etc) is placed centrally in an outer with dimensions 3 x 3 inches.

       The exact place where the dielectric starts (a) and its width  (d)  are  unimportant,  but
       they must still be entered.

       % create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 > ex1.bmp
       % atlc ex1.bmp

       In  this  second  example,  an  inner  of  15.0 mm x 0.5 mm is surrounded by an outer with
       internal dimensions of 61.5 x 20.1 mm. There is a material with permittivity  2.1  (Er  of
       PTFE) below the inner conductor. The output from create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler is sent
       to a file ex1.bmp, which is then processed by atlc

       % create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler 61.5 20.1 5 22 0.5 50 15 5 1.0 2.1 > ex2.bmp
       % atlc ex2.bmp

       In example 3, the bitmap is made larger, to  increase  accuracy,  but  otherwise  this  is
       identical  to  the second example.  % create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler -b7 61.5 20.1 5 22
       0.5 50 15 5 1.0 2.1 > ex3.bmp
       % atlc ex3.bmp

       In the fourth example, materials with permittivites 2.78 and 7.89 are used. While there is
       no  change in how to use create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler, since these permittivities are
       not known, we must tell atlc what they are.  % create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler 61 20 1 4
       22  0.5  50  15  5 2.78 7.89 > ex5.bmp % atlc -d CAFF00=2.78 -d AC82AC=7.89 ex5.bmp In the
       sixth and final example, the -v option is used to print some extra  data  to  stderr  from


       atlc(1)            create_bmp_for_circ_in_circ(1)           create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect(1)
       create_bmp_for_rect_cen_in_rect(1)              create_bmp_for_rect_cen_in_rect_coupler(1)
       create_bmp_for_rect_in_circ(1)                         create_bmp_for_stripline_coupler(1)
       create_bmp_for_symmetrical_stripline(1)                                  design_coupler(1)
       find_optimal_dimensions_for_microstrip_coupler(1) readbin(1)                - Home page       - Download area
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html       - HTML docs
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/qex-december-1996/atlc.pdf - theory paper
       atlc-X.Y.Z/examples                        - examples