Provided by: atlc_4.6.1-5_amd64 bug


       design_coupler - for designing directional couplers (part of the atlc package)


       design_coupler [-C][-d][-e][-H height][-L length][-q]
       [s fstep][-Z Zo] CF fmin fmax


       This  man page is not a complete set of documentation - the complexity of the atlc project
       makes man pages not an ideal way to document it, although out of completeness,  man  pages
       are  produced.   The  best  documentation  that  was  current at the time this version was
       produced should be found on your hard drive, usually at
       although it might be elsewhere if your system administrator chose to install  the  package
       elsewhere.   Sometimes,   errors   are  corrected  in  the  documentation  and  placed  at before a new release of atlc is  released.   Please,  if  you
       notice  a  problem  with the documentation - even spelling errors and typos, please let me


       design_coupler is used to design directional couplers. It it not used to analyse  couplers
       for  which  you know the dimensions. Instead, it is used but when you require a coupler to
       have specific properties, but don't know the required odd and even mode impedances or  the
       required physical dimensions that will achieve those required properties.

       As  a  minimum  the  user must specify the coupling factor CF in dB, the minimum frequency
       fmin in  MHz  and  the  maximum  frequency  fmax  in  MHz.   With  this  information,  the
       design_coupler will
       a)  Tell you the required odd and even mode impedances Zodd and Zeven assuming the coupler
       is for 50 Ohms and assuming the coupler is is a quarter  wave  long,  which  might  be  an
       impractical  length. There a numerous ways of making a coupler having those impedances and
       design_coupler does not (without the addition of options mentioned later), tell you how to
       make  such  a  coupler.   b)  Given  you the frequency response of the coupler, making the
       assumptions about the 50 Ohm impedance and quarter-wave length. The frequency response  is
       calculated at 5 points in the range specified by fmin and fmax.

       By  use  of  the  -Z  'Zo' and -L 'length' and -f 'fstep' options it it posible to specify
       different a different characteristic impedance, length and different  frequency  steps  to
       display the frequency response.

       The  computed   values  of  Zodd and Zeven required are valid no matter how the coupler is
       design physically. So no matter whether it's implemented on a PCB, air spaced or whatever,
       the above impedances are correct and the frequency response is correct.

       The  -d  option  causes  design_coupler to not only report the required odd and even modem
       impedances but also the physical dimensions of a coupler that achieves  these  properties!
       Currently,  the  only stucture for which it is possible to compute the physical dimentions
       is two wide edge-coupled striplines between two wide plates like this:

       -----------------------------------------------------  ^
       |                                                   |  |
       |                  Er                               |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |            -----------       -----------          |  H
       |            <----w----><--s--><----w---->          |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       -----------------------------------------------------  v

       The width W must be much greater than the height  of  the  coupler  and  generally  it  is
       assumed  that  this  width  will  at  least  2*w+s*5*H, otherwise the calculations will be
       incorrect. In order to calculate these dimenisions an analytical method is used, which  is
       only valid if the width W is infinity, but should be resonably good assuming W is at least

       It is later intended to enable design coupler to use other structures, which migth be more
       suitable  for  construction, such as microstrip couplers on PCBs, but for now at least, it
       is only possible to compute the  physical  dimensions  of  the  coupler  using  the  above
       stucture.  For  strong coupling (less than 20 dB or so), the dimenions calculated might be
       impractical, as the spacing s will be so small. However, for weak coupling, the  physcical
       dimensions are practical.


       print copyright, licensing and copying information.
       Design  a  coupler,  using  two  edgle-coupled stiplines inside a wide 4-sided rectangular

       Priont an example of how to use design_coupler
       -H height
       Specify the height of the enclosure in some convenient unit. By default,  a  height  of  1
       unit  is assumed, but by use of this option it is possible to specify any height you want.
       Since its the ratio of dimensions that is important, not the absolute  values,  this  just
       scales  all the other dimensions by the specified height. It is just a conveneince for the
       -L length
       Specifies the coupler length in metres. By default the coupler is assumed to be a quarter-
       wave,  but  this  allow  any length you want. Don't chose a length that is a multiple of a
       half-wave though, as this will make it impossible to couple any power out.  -q
       This is the 'quite' switch and causes design_coupler to print out  less  information.  One
       can use -qq to cause the even less output.
       -s  fstep Causes design_couler to print out the frequency response at different steps from
       the default 5 values. fstep must be in MHz. The default value of fstep is obviously (fmax-
       Z Zo
       Causes  design_coupler  to  compute properties of an impedance Zo (shecified in Ohms). The
       default value for Zo is 50 Ohms.


       Run design_coupler gives examples of its use. However, here are those same examples.

       Here are a examples of how to use design_coupler In the examples, the % sign  is  used  in
       front  of anything you must type which is what you will probably see when using the csh or
       tcsh as a shell. It would probably be a $ sign if using the sh or bash shell.

       To find the odd and even mode impedances and frequency  response  of  a  50  Ohm  coupler,
       covering 130 to 170 MHz, with a coupling coefficient of 30 dB:

       % design_coupler 30 130 170

       Note  the  frequency  response is symmetrical about the centre frequency at 0.192 dB below
       that wanted. You may wish to redesign this for a coupling coefficient of about 29.9 dB, so
       the  maximum  deviation  from  the  ideal  30.0  dB  never  exceeds 0.1 dB Note the length
       suggested is 0.5 m (nearly 20") is a quarter wave at the centre frequency of 150 MHz.  You
       might find this a bit too long, so let's specify a length of 0.25 m.

       % design_coupler -L 0.25 30 130 170

       What  you may notice is that while the coupling to the coupled port is exactly 30 dB below
       the input power at the centre frequency (150 MHz) it is no longer  symmetrical  about  the
       centre  frequency.  Also,  deviations  from  the  ideal  30 dB are now much larger, with a
       maximum error of 1.012 dB Unlike the case when the length is  the  default  quarter  wave,
       there is not much you can do about this, since the deviations occur in both directions.

       Now  assume you are reasonably happy with the response when the length is 250 mm but would
       like to see the response at every 2.5 MHz. This  can  be  done  using  the  -s  option  to

       % design_coupler -L 0.25 -s 2.5 30 130 170

       Assuming the performance is acceptable, the dimensions of the coupler can be determined by
       adding the -d option. This will design a coupler that must look like the structure  below.
       The two inner conductors, which are spaced equally between the top and bottom edges of the
       outer conductor, must be very thin.  These are placed along the length of a box  of  width
       W, height H and of a length L determined by the user, which in this case is 250 mm.

       -----------------------------------------------------  ^
       |                                                   |  |
       |                  Er                               |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |            -----------       -----------          |  H
       |            <----w----><--s--><----w---->          |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       |                                                   |  |
       -----------------------------------------------------  v

       The  program reports: H = 1.0, ; w = 1.44 ; s = 0.44 The height of the box H must be small
       compared to the length L, (perhaps no more than 7% of the length),  or  17.5  mm  in  this
       case,  with  a length of 250 mm, otherwise fringing effects will be significant. The width
       of the structure W should be as large  as  possible.  The  program  suggests  making  this
       5*H+2*w+s.  The 7% and 5*H+2*w+s are educated guesses, rather than exact figures. There is
       no problem in making the width  larger than 5*H+2*w+s. The length L must be  kept  at  250
       mm.  The  RATIO of the dimensions H, w and s (but not L or W must be kept constant. W just
       needs to be sufficiently large - it is uncritical.

       If you happened to have some 15 mm square brass available, then using that for  the  side-
       walls  would require that H becomes 15*1.0 = 15 mm, w = 15*1.44 = 21.6 mm  and s = 15*0.44
       = 6.6 mm

       There is no need to compute the above scaling with a calculator, as using  The  -H  option
       allows  one to specify the height H. The program then reports the exact dimensions for the
       length L, height H, w, s and suggests a minimum width for W.

       In summary we have:
           30 dB coupler +1.02 dB / -0.78 dB for 130 to 170 MHz
           Length L = 250 mm, height H = 15 mm, stripline spacing s = 6.3 mm
            stripline width w = 21.6 mm enclosure width W >= 124 mm

       By default, design_coupler prints a lot of information to the screen.  This can be reduced
       by  the  -q option or reduced to only one line with -qq Other options include -Z to change
       the impedance from the default 50 Ohms and -C to see the fully  copyright,  Licensing  and
       distribution information


       No files are created at all.


       create_bmp_for_circ_in_circ(1)                              create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect(1)
       create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler(1)                    create_bmp_for_rect_cen_in_rect(1)
       create_bmp_for_rect_cen_in_rect_coupler(1)                  create_bmp_for_rect_in_circ(1)
       create_bmp_for_rect_in_rect(1)                         create_bmp_for_stripline_coupler(1)
       create_bmp_for_symmetrical_stripline(1) find_optimal_dimensions_for_microstrip_coupler(1)
       readbin(1)                - Home page       - Download area
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html       - HTML docs
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/qex-december-1996/design_coupler.pdf - theory paper
       atlc-X.Y.Z/examples                        - examples