Provided by: libsane-common_1.0.23-3ubuntu3.1_amd64 bug


       sane - Scanner Access Now Easy: API for accessing scanners


       SANE  is  an  application programming interface (API) that provides standardized access to
       any raster image scanner hardware. The standardized interface makes it possible  to  write
       just  one  driver  for  each  scanner  device  instead  of one driver for each scanner and

       While SANE is primarily targeted at a UNIX environment, the standard  has  been  carefully
       designed  to  make it possible to implement the API on virtually any hardware or operating

       This manual page provides a summary of the information available about SANE.

       If you have trouble getting your scanner detected, read the PROBLEMS section.


       An application that uses the SANE interface is called a  SANE  frontend.   A  driver  that
       implements  the  SANE  interface  is  called a SANE backend.  A meta backend provides some
       means to manage one or more other backends.


       The package `sane-backends' contains a lot of backends, documentation (including the  SANE
       standard),  networking  support, and the command line frontend `scanimage'.  The frontends
       `xscanimage', `xcam', and `scanadf' are included in the  package  `sane-frontends'.   Both
       packages   can  be  downloaded  from  the  SANE  homepage  (
       Information about other frontends and backends can also be found on the SANE homepage.


       The following sections provide short descriptions and  links  to  more  information  about
       several aspects of SANE.  A name with a number in parenthesis (e.g.  `sane-dll(5)') points
       to a manual page. In this case `man 5  sane-dll'  will  display  the  page.  Entries  like
       `/usr/share/doc/libsane/sane.tex'  are  references  to  text files that were copied to the
       SANE documentation directory  (/usr/share/doc/libsane/)  during  installation.  Everything
       else is a URL to a resource on the web.

       SANE homepage
         Information  on  all aspects of SANE including a tutorial and a link to the SANE FAQ can
         be found on the SANE homepage:

       SANE device lists
         The SANE device lists contain information  about  the  status  of  SANE  support  for  a
         specific  device. If your scanner is not listed there (either supported or unsupported),
         please contact us. See section HOW CAN YOU HELP SANE for details. There  are  lists  for
         specific  releases  of  SANE,  for  the current development version and a search engine:  The lists are  also  installed
         on your system at /usr/share/doc/libsane/.

       SANE mailing list
         There  is  a  mailing  list  for  the  purpose  of  discussing the SANE standard and its
         implementations: sane-devel.  Despite its name,  the  list  is  not  only  intended  for
         developers,  but  also  for  users.  There  are also some more lists for special topics,
         however, for users, sane-devel is the right list.  How  to  subscribe  and  unsubscribe:

       SANE IRC channel
         The  IRC  (Internet  Relay  Chat)  channel  #sane  can  be found on the Freenode network
         ( It's for discussing SANE problems,  talking  about  development  and
         general   SANE  related  chatting.  Before  asking  for  help,  please  read  the  other
         documentation mentioned in this manual page.  The  channel's  topic  is  also  used  for
         announcements of problems with SANE infrastructure (mailing lists, web server, etc.).

       Compiling and installing SANE
         Look  at /usr/share/doc/libsane/README and the os-dependent README files for information
         about compiling and installing SANE.

       SCSI configuration
         For information about various systems and SCSI controllers see sane-scsi(5).

       USB configuration
         For information about USB configuration see sane-usb(5).


         Command-line frontend. See scanimage(1).

         SANE network daemon that allows remote  clients  to  access  image  acquisition  devices
         available on the local host. See saned(8).

         Command-line  tool  to find SCSI and USB scanners and determine their Unix device files.
         See sane-find-scanner(1).

       Also, have a look at the sane-frontends package (including xscanimage, xcam, and  scanadf)
       and the frontend information page at


         The  SANE backend for Abaton flatbed scanners supports the Scan 300/GS (8bit, 256 levels
         of gray) and the Scan 300/S (black and white, untested). See sane-abaton(5) for details.

         This backend supports AGFA  Focus  scanners  and  the  Siemens  S9036  (untested).   See
         sane-agfafocus(5) for details.

         The   SANE   backend  for  Apple  flatbed  scanners  supports  the  following  scanners:
         AppleScanner, OneScanner and ColorOneScanner. See sane-apple(5) for details.

         The SANE Artec backend supports several Artec/Ultima SCSI flatbed scanners  as  well  as
         the BlackWidow BW4800SP and the Plustek 19200S. See sane-artec(5) for details.

         The  SANE  artec_eplus48u backend supports the scanner Artec E+ 48U and re-badged models
         like Tevion MD 9693, Medion MD 9693, Medion MD 9705 and Trust Easy  Webscan  19200.  See
         sane-artec_eplus48u(5) for details.

         This  is  a  SANE  backend for using the Artec AS6E parallel port interface scanner. See
         sane-as6e(5) for details.

         This backend supports several Avision based scanners. This includes the original Avision
         scanners  (like  AV  630,  AV  620, ...) as well as the HP ScanJet 53xx and 74xx series,
         Fujitsu ScanPartner, some Mitsubishi and Minolta film-scanners.  See sane-avision(5) for

         The  bh backend provides access to Bell+Howell Copiscan II series document scanners. See
         sane-bh(5) for details.

         The canon backend supports the CanoScan 300,  CanoScan  600,  and  CanoScan  2700F  SCSI
         flatbed scanners. See sane-canon(5) for details.

         The   canon630u  backend  supports  the  CanoScan  630u  and  636u  USB  scanners.   See
         sane-canon630u(5) for details.

         The canon_dr backend supports the  Canon  DR-Series  ADF  SCSI  and  USB  scanners.  See
         sane-canon_dr(5) for details.

         The canon_pp backend supports the CanoScan FB330P, FB630P, N340P and N640P parallel port
         scanners.  See sane-canon_pp(5) for details.

         This backend provides support for Corex Cardscan USB scanners. See sane-cardscan(5)  for

         This  is  a  SANE  backend  for  Nikon  Coolscan film-scanners. See sane-coolscan(5) for

         This is a SANE backend for  Nikon  Coolscan  film-scanners.   See  sane-coolscan2(5)  or for details.

         The  epjitsu  backend  provides  support  for  Epson-based  Fujitsu  USB  scanners.  See
         sane-epjitsu(5) for details.

         The SANE epson backend provides support for Epson SCSI, parallel port  and  USB  flatbed
         scanners. See sane-epson(5) for details.

         The  fujitsu  backend  provides  support  for most Fujitsu SCSI and USB, flatbed and adf
         scanners. See sane-fujitsu(5) for details.

         The genesys backend provides support for several scanners based  on  the  Genesys  Logic
         GL646,  GL841,  GL843,  GL847  and  GL124 chips like the Medion 6471 and Hewlett-Packard
          See sane-genesys(5) for details.

         The gt68xx backend provides support for scanners based  on  the  Grandtech  GT-6801  and
         GT-6816  chips  like  the Artec Ultima 2000 and several Mustek BearPaw CU and TA models.
         Some Genius, Lexmark, Medion,  Packard  Bell,  Plustek,  and  Trust  scanners  are  also
         supported. See sane-gt68xx(5) for details.

         The  SANE  hp  backend provides access to Hewlett-Packard ScanJet scanners which support
         SCL (Scanner Control Language by HP). See sane-hp(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet  5S  scanner.  See  sane-hpsj5s(5)  for

         The  SANE  backend  for  the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 3500 series. See sane-hp3500(5) for

         The SANE backend for the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 3900  series.  See  sane-hp3900(5)  for

         The  SANE  backend  for  the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 4200 series. See sane-hp4200(5) for

         The SANE backend for the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 54XXC series.  See  sane-hp5400(5)  for

         The  SANE  backend for the Hewlett-Packard LaserJet M1005 scanner. See sane-hpljm1005(5)
         for details.

         The SANE backend for the Ricoh IS450 family  of  SCSI  scanners.  See  sane-hs2p(5)  for

         The SANE backend for some IBM and Ricoh SCSI scanners. See sane-ibm(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for some large Kodak scanners. See sane-kodak(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for Kodak AiO printer/scanners. See sane-kodakaio(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for Panasonic KV-S102xC scanners. See sane-kvs1025(5) for details.

         This  backend  supports  the  Leo  S3  and  the Across FS-1130, which is a re-badged LEO
         FS-1130 scanner. See sane-leo(5) for details.

         This backend supports the Lexmark X1100 series of USB scanners. See sane-lexmark(5)  for

         The  ma1509  backend  supports  the  Mustek  BearPaw  1200F  USB  flatbed  scanner.  See
         sane-ma1509(5) for details.

         The magicolor backend  supports  the  KONICA  MINOLTA  magicolor  1690MF  multi-function
         printer/scanner/fax. See sane-magicolor(5) for details.

         This  backend  supports  some Panasonic KVSS high speed scanners. See sane-matsushita(5)
         for details.

         The microtek backend provides access to the "second generation" Microtek  scanners  with
         SCSI-1 command set. See sane-microtek(5) for details.

         The  microtek2  backend  provides access to some Microtek scanners with a SCSI-2 command
         set. See sane-microtek2(5) for details.

         The SANE mustek backend supports most Mustek SCSI flatbed scanners including the Paragon
         and  ScanExpress  series  and the 600 II N and 600 II EP (non-SCSI). Some Trust scanners
         are also supported. See sane-mustek(5) for details.

         The mustek_pp backend provides access to Mustek  parallel  port  flatbed  scanners.  See
         sane-mustek_pp(5) for details.

         The  mustek_usb backend provides access to some Mustek ScanExpress USB flatbed scanners.
         See sane-mustek_usb(5) for details.

         The mustek_usb2 backend provides access to scanners using the  SQ113  chipset  like  the
         Mustek BearPaw 2448 TA Pro USB flatbed scanner. See sane-mustek_usb2(5) for details.

         The  SANE  nec  backend  supports  the NEC PC-IN500/4C SCSI scanner. See sane-nec(5) for

         The niash backend supports the Agfa Snapscan Touch and the HP ScanJet 3300c, 3400c,  and
         4300c USB flatbed scanners. See sane-niash(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for Primax PagePartner. See sane-p5(5) for details.

         The  pie  backend  provides  access  to  Pacific Image Electronics (PIE) and Devcom SCSI
         flatbed scanners. See sane-pie(5) for details.

         The  pixma  backend  supports  Canon  PIXMA  MP  series  (multi-function  devices).  See
         sane-pixma(5) or for details.

         The   SANE  plustek  backend  supports  USB  flatbed  scanners  that  use  the  National
         Semiconductor LM983[1/2/3]-chipset aka Merlin. Scanners using this LM983x chips  include
         some  models  from Plustek, KYE/Genius, Hewlett-Packard, Mustek, Umax, Epson, and Canon.
         See sane-plustek(5) for details.

         The SANE plustek_pp backend supports Plustek parallel port flatbed  scanners.   Scanners
         using  the  Plustek  ASIC  P96001,  P96003,  P98001  and P98003 include some models from
         Plustek, KYE/Genius, Primax. See sane-plustek_pp(5) for details.

         The ricoh backend provides access to the following  Ricoh  flatbed  scanners:  IS50  and
         IS60. See sane-ricoh(5) for details.

         The  s9036  backend  provides access to Siemens 9036 flatbed scanners. See sane-s9036(5)
         for details.

         The  sceptre  backend  provides  access  to  the  Sceptre  S1200  flatbed  scanner.  See
         sane-sceptre(5) for details.

         The SANE sharp backend supports Sharp SCSI scanners. See sane-sharp(5) for details.

         The  SANE  sm3600  backend  supports  the  Microtek  ScanMaker  3600  USB  scanner.  See
         sane-sm3600(5) for details.

         The SANE  sm3840  backend  supports  the  Microtek  ScanMaker  3840  USB  scanner.   See
         sane-sm3840(5) for details.

         The  snapscan  backend supports AGFA SnapScan flatbed scanners. See sane-snapscan(5) for

         This  backend  supports  the  Fujitsu  FCPA  ScanPartner  15C   flatbed   scanner.   See
         sane-sp15c(5) for details.

         The sane-st400 backend provides access to Siemens ST400 and ST800. See sane-st400(5) for

         The  SANE  tamarack  backend  supports   Tamarack   Artiscan   flatbed   scanners.   See
         sane-tamarack(5) for details.

       teco1 teco2 teco3
         The  SANE teco1, teco2 and teco3 backends support some TECO scanners, usually sold under
         the Relisys, Trust, Primax, Piotech, Dextra names. See sane-teco1(5), sane-teco2(5)  and
         sane-teco3(5) for details.

         The  sane-u12  backend  provides  USB  flatbed  scanners  based  on Plustek's ASIC 98003
         (parallel-port ASIC) and a GeneSys Logics' USB-parport  bridge  chip  like  the  Plustek
         OpticPro U(T)12. See sane-u12(5) for details.

         The  sane-umax  backend  provides access to several UMAX-SCSI-scanners and some Linotype
         Hell SCSI-scanners. See sane-umax(5) for details.

         The sane-umax_pp backend provides access to Umax parallel port flatbed scanners and  the
         HP 3200C. See sane-umax_pp(5) for details.

         The sane-umax1220u backend supports the UMAX Astra 1220U (USB) flatbed scanner (and also
         the UMAX Astra 2000U, sort of). See sane-umax1220u(5) for details.

       Also,     have     a     look     at     the     backend     information      page      at   and  the  list  of  projects  in


         Backend for Kodak DC210 Digital Camera. See sane-dc210(5).

         Backend for Kodak DC240 Digital Camera. See sane-dc240(5).

         Backend for Kodak DC20/DC25 Digital Cameras. See sane-dc25(5).

         Backend for the Polaroid Digital Microscope Camera. See sane-dmc(5).

         Backend  for  digital  cameras  supported  by  the  gphoto2   library   package.    (See  for  more  information and a list of supported cameras.)  Gphoto2
         supports over 140 different camera models.  However, please note that  more  development
         and  testing  is  needed  before all of these cameras will be supported by SANE backend.
         See sane-gphoto2(5).

         Backend for Connectix QuickCam cameras. See sane-qcam(5).

         The sane-st680 backend provides access to webcams with a stv680 chip. See  sane-st680(5)
         for details.

       Also,      have      a     look     at     the     backend     information     page     at  and  the  list  of  projects   in


         The  sane-dll  library  implements  a  SANE backend that provides access to an arbitrary
         number of other SANE backends by dynamic loading. See sane-dll(5).

         The SANE network daemon saned provides access to scanners located on different computers
         in connection with the net backend. See sane-net(5) and saned(8).

         PNM  image  reader  pseudo-backend.  The  purpose of this backend is primarily to aid in
         debugging of SANE frontends. See sane-pnm(5).

         Backend for scanners that use the PINT (Pint Is Not  Twain)  device  driver.   The  PINT
         driver is being actively developed on the OpenBSD platform, and has been ported to a few
         other *nix-like operating systems. See sane-pint(5).

         The SANE test backend is for testing frontends and the SANE installation.   It  provides
         test pictures and various test options. See sane-test(5).

         The  sane-v4l  library  implements  a SANE backend that provides generic access to video
         cameras and similar equipment using the V4L (Video for Linux) API. See sane-v4l(5).

       Also,     have     a     look     at     the     backend     information      page      at   and  the  list  of  projects  in


       By default, all SANE backends (drivers)  are  loaded  dynamically  by  the  sane-dll  meta
       backend.  If  you  have  any  questions about the dynamic loading, read sane-dll(5).  SANE
       frontend can also be linked to other backends directly by copying or linking a backend  to in /usr/lib/arch_triplet/sane.


       It's  not  hard  to  write a SANE backend. It can take some time, however. You should have
       basic knowledge of C and enough patience to work through the documentation  and  find  out
       how  your  scanner works. Appended is a list of some documents that help to write backends
       and frontends.

       The SANE standard defines the application programming interface  (API)  that  is  used  to
       communicate     between    frontends    and    backends.    It    can    be    found    at
       /usr/share/doc/libsane/ (if latex is installed on your  system)  and  on  the  SANE
       website: (HTML), or

       There      is       some       more       information       for       programmers       in
       /usr/share/doc/libsane/backend-writing.txt.   Most  of  the internal SANE routines (sanei)
       are documented using doxygen:  Before a new backend or
       frontend  project  is started, have a look at /usr/share/doc/libsane/PROJECTS for projects
       that are planned or not yet included into the SANE distribution and  at  our  bug-tracking
       system: http://www.

       There   are   some   links   on  how  to  find  out  about  the  protocol  of  a  scanner:

       If you start writing a backend or frontend or any other part of SANE, please  contact  the
       sane-devel mailing list for coordination so the same work isn't done twice.


              The backend configuration files.

              The static libraries implementing the backends.

              The  shared  libraries  implementing  the backends (present on systems that support
              dynamic loading).

              SANE documentation: The standard, READMEs, text files for backends etc.


       If your device isn't found but you know that  it  is  supported,  make  sure  that  it  is
       detected  by  your  operating system. For SCSI and USB scanners, use the sane-find-scanner
       tool (see sane-find-scanner(1) for details). It prints one line for each  scanner  it  has
       detected  and  some comments (#). If sane-find-scanner finds your scanner only as root but
       not as normal user, the permissions for the device files are not  adjusted  correctly.  If
       the  scanner isn't found at all, the operating system hasn't detected it and may need some
       help. Depending on the type of your scanner, read sane-usb(5) or  sane-scsi(5).   If  your
       scanner  (or  other  device) is not connected over the SCSI bus or USB, read the backend's
       manual page for details on how to set it up.

       Now your scanner is detected by the operating system but not by SANE?  Try  scanimage  -L.
       If   the   scanner   is  not  found,  check  that  the  backend's  name  is  mentioned  in
       /etc/sane.d/dll.conf.  Some backends are commented out by default. Remove the comment sign
       for  your  backend in this case. Also some backends aren't compiled at all if one of their
       prerequisites are missing. Examples include dc210, dc240, canon_pp, hpsj5s, gphoto2, pint,
       qcam,  v4l,  net, sm3600, snapscan, pnm. If you need one of these backends and they aren't
       available, read the build instructions in the README file and the individual manual  pages
       of the backends.

       Another  reason  for  not  being  detected  by  scanimage  -L  may  be  a missing or wrong
       configuration in the backend's configuration file. While SANE tries to automatically  find
       most   scanners,   some   can't  be  setup  correctly  without  the  intervention  of  the
       administrator. Also on some operating systems  auto-detection  may  not  work.  Check  the
       backend's manual page for details.

       If your scanner is still not found, try setting the various environment variables that are
       available to assist in  debugging.   The  environment  variables  are  documented  in  the
       relevant  manual  pages.  For example, to get the maximum amount of debug information when
       testing   a   Mustek   SCSI   scanner,   set   environment    variables    SANE_DEBUG_DLL,
       SANE_DEBUG_MUSTEK,  and  SANE_DEBUG_SANEI_SCSI  to 128 and then invoke scanimage -L .  The
       debug messages for the dll backend tell if the mustek backend was found and loaded at all.
       The  mustek  messages  explain  what  the mustek backend is doing while the SCSI debugging
       shows the low level handling. If you can't find  out  what's  going  on  by  checking  the
       messages  carefully,  contact  the  sane-devel  mailing  list for help (see REPORTING BUGS

       Now that your scanner is found by scanimage -L, try to do a  scan:  scanimage  >image.pnm.
       This  command  starts  a  scan  for  the  default  scanner  with default settings. All the
       available options are listed by running scanimage --help.   If  scanning  aborts  with  an
       error  message,  turn  on debugging as mentioned above. Maybe the configuration file needs
       some tuning, e.g. to setup the path to a firmware that is needed by some scanners. See the
       backend's manual page for details. If you can't find out what's wrong, contact sane-devel.

       To  check  that  the  SANE libraries are installed correctly you can use the test backend,
       even if you don't have a scanner or other SANE device:

              scanimage -d test -T

       You should get a list of PASSed tests. You can do the same with your backend  by  changing
       "test" to your backend's name.

       So  now  scanning  with scanimage works and you want to use one of the graphical frontends
       like xsane, xscanimage, or quiteinsane but those frontends don't detect your scanner?  One
       reason  may  be  that  you  installed  two  versions  of  SANE.  E.g. the version that was
       installed by your distribution in /usr and one you installed from source  in  /usr/local/.
       Make  sure  that  only  one  version  is  installed. Another possible reason is, that your
       system's dynamic loader  can't  find  the  SANE  libraries.  For  Linux,  make  sure  that
       /etc/  contains  /usr/local/lib  and  does not contain /usr/local/lib/sane.  See
       also the documentation of the frontends.


       We appreciate any help we can get. Please have a look at our web page  about  contributing
       to SANE:


       For  reporting  bugs  or  requesting  new  features,  please  use our bug-tracking system:  You can also contact the author  of  your  backend
       directly.  Usually  the  email  address can be found in the /usr/share/doc/libsane/AUTHORS
       file or the backend's manpage. For general discussion about  SANE,  please  use  the  SANE
       mailing list sane-devel (see for details).


       saned(8),    sane-find-scanner(1),    scanimage(1),   sane-abaton(5),   sane-agfafocus(5),
       sane-apple(5),  sane-artec(5),  sane-artec_eplus48u(5),   sane-as6e(5),   sane-avision(5),
       sane-bh(5),    sane-canon(5),   sane-canon630u(5),   sane-canon_dr(5),   sane-canon_pp(5),
       sane-cardscan(5),  sane-coolscan2(5),  sane-coolscan(5),   sane-dc210(5),   sane-dc240(5),
       sane-dc25(5),  sane-dll(5),  sane-dmc(5), sane-epson(5), sane-fujitsu(5), sane-genesys(5),
       sane-gphoto2(5),    sane-gt68xx(5),    sane-hp(5),     sane-hpsj5s(5),     sane-hp3500(5),
       sane-hp3900(5),    sane-hp4200(5),    sane-hp5400(5),    sane-hpljm1005(5),   sane-ibm(5),
       sane-kodak(5),   sane-leo(5),   sane-lexmark(5),    sane-ma1509(5),    sane-matsushita(5),
       sane-microtek2(5),        sane-microtek(5),       sane-mustek(5),       sane-mustek_pp(5),
       sane-mustek_usb(5),   sane-mustek_usb2(5),   sane-nec(5),   sane-net(5),    sane-niash(5),
       sane-pie(5), sane-pint(5), sane-plustek(5), sane-plustek_pp(5), sane-pnm(5), sane-qcam(5),
       sane-ricoh(5),    sane-s9036(5),     sane-sceptre(5),     sane-scsi(5),     sane-sharp(5),
       sane-sm3600(5),    sane-sm3840(5),    sane-snapscan(5),    sane-sp15c(5),   sane-st400(5),
       sane-stv680(5),    sane-tamarack(5),    sane-teco1(5),    sane-teco2(5),    sane-teco3(5),
       sane-test(5),  sane-u12(5), sane-umax1220u(5), sane-umax(5), sane-umax_pp(5), sane-usb(5),


       David Mosberger-Tang and many many more (see /usr/share/doc/libsane/AUTHORS for  details).
       This man page was written by Henning Meier-Geinitz. Quite a lot of text was taken from the
       SANE standard, several man pages, and README files.

                                           14 Jul 2008                                    sane(7)