Provided by: rsync_3.1.3-8ubuntu0.7_amd64 bug


       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool


       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages  with  just  one  SRC  arg  and  no  DEST arg will list the source files instead of


       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.   It  can  copy  locally,
       to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a
       large number of options that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification  of  the  set  of  files  to be copied.  It is famous for its delta-transfer
       algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over the  network  by  sending  only  the
       differences  between the source files and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync is
       widely used for backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" algorithm (by default)
       that  looks  for files that have changed in size or in last-modified time.  Any changes in
       the other preserved attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination  file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file’s data does not need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)


       Rsync  copies  files  either  to or from a remote host, or locally on the current host (it
       does not support copying files between two remote hosts).

       There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system:  using  a  remote-shell
       program  as  the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync daemon directly via
       TCP.  The remote-shell transport is used whenever the source or destination path  contains
       a  single  colon  (:)  separator  after  a host specification.  Contacting an rsync daemon
       directly happens when the  source  or  destination  path  contains  a  double  colon  (::)
       separator  after  a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the
       this latter rule).

       As  a  special  case, if a single source arg is specified without a destination, the files
       are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a  remote  host,  the  copy
       occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as the "server".  Don’t
       confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon is always a server, but a server can  be
       either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.


       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access via a remote shell
       (as well as some that you can access using the rsync daemon-mode  protocol).   For  remote
       transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured
       to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like,  either  by  using  the  -e  command  line
       option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.


       You  use  rsync  in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source and a destination,
       one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory  to  the
       directory  src  on the machine foo. If any of the files already exist on the remote system
       then the rsync remote-update protocol is used to update  the  file  by  sending  only  the
       differences  in  the  data.  Note that the expansion of wildcards on the commandline (*.c)
       into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs rsync and not by rsync  itself
       (exactly the same as all other posix-style programs).

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This  would  recursively  transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine foo
       into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the  local  machine.  The  files  are  transferred  in
       "archive"  mode,  which  ensures  that  symbolic  links, devices, attributes, permissions,
       ownerships, etc. are preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing  slash  on  the  source  changes this behavior to avoid creating an additional
       directory level at the destination.  You can think of a trailing / on a source as  meaning
       "copy  the  contents of this directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in
       both cases the attributes of the containing directory are transferred  to  the  containing
       directory  on  the destination.  In other words, each of the following commands copies the
       files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module references don’t require  a  trailing  slash  to  copy  the
       contents of the default directory.  For example, both of these copy the remote directory’s
       contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the  source  and  destination  don’t
       have a ’:’ in the name. In this case it behaves like an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync daemon
       by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.


       The syntax for requesting multiple  files  from  a  remote  host  is  done  by  specifying
       additional  remote-host args in the same style as the first, or with the hostname omitted.
       For instance, all these work:

              rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4} /dest/

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these examples:

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       Starting this version of rsync, filenames are passed to a remote shell in such a way as to
       preserve the characters you give it.  Thus, if you ask for a file with spaces in the name,
       that's what the remote rsync looks for:

              rsync -aiv host:'a simple file.pdf' /dest/

       If you use scripts that have been written to manually apply extra quoting  to  the  remote
       rsync  args  (or  to  require  remote arg splitting), you can ask rsync to let your script
       handle the extra escaping.  This is done by either adding the  --old-args  option  to  the
       rsync  runs  in  the script (which requires a new rsync) or exporting RSYNC_OLD_ARGS=1 and
       RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS=0 (which works with old or new rsync versions).


       It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.   In  this  case
       you  will  directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically using TCP port 873.  (This
       obviously requires the daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING
       AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to separate the hostname
              from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of accessible  paths
              on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if  you  specify  no local destination then a listing of the specified files on the
              remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication. If so, you  will  receive  a
       password  prompt  when  you  connect.  You  can  avoid  the password prompt by setting the
       environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the  password  you  want  to  use  or  using  the
       --password-file option. This may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:  On some systems environment variables are visible to all users. On those systems
       using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web  proxy  by  setting  the  environment  variable
       RSYNC_PROXY  to  a  hostname:port  pair  pointing  to  your web proxy.  Note that your web
       proxy’s configuration must support proxy connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program  as  a  proxy  by  setting  the
       environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you wish to run in place of making
       a direct socket connection.  The string may contain  the  escape  "%H"  to  represent  the
       hostname  specified  in  the  rsync  command (so use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).  For example:

         export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
         rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
         rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost, which forwards all
       data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost (%H).


       It  is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such as named modules)
       without actually allowing any new socket connections into a system  (other  than  what  is
       already required to allow remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using
       a remote shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that  expects  to  read  its
       config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be useful if you want to encrypt
       a daemon-style transfer’s data, but since the daemon is started up  fresh  by  the  remote
       user,  you  may  not  be able to use features such as chroot or change the uid used by the
       daemon.  (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using  ssh  to  tunnel  a
       local  port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host to
       only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From the user’s perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell connection  uses  nearly
       the  same  command-line  syntax as a normal rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception
       being that you must explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line  with  the
       --rsh=COMMAND  option.   (Setting  the  RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this
       functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the  user@  prefix
       in  front  of  the  host  is  specifying  the rsync-user value (for a module that requires
       user-based authentication).  This means that you must give the ’-l  user’  option  to  ssh
       when  specifying  the  remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be used to  log-in  to
       the "module".


       In  order  to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a daemon already
       running (or it needs to have configured something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon  for
       incoming connections on a particular port).  For full information on how to start a daemon
       that will handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is
       the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the daemon
       (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

       If you’re using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no  need  to
       manually start an rsync daemon.


       Rsync  always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer list.  This handles
       the merging together of the contents of identically named directories, makes  it  easy  to
       remove  duplicate  filenames,  and may confuse someone when the files are transferred in a
       different order than what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular file to be transferred prior  to  another,  either  separate  the
       files  into different rsync calls, or consider using --delay-updates (which doesn’t affect
       the sorted transfer order, but does make the final file-updating phase  happen  much  more


       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife’s  home  directory,  which  consists  of large MS Word files and mail
       folders, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile targets:

                   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the connection. I then  do
       CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol
       isn’t very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the command:

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.


       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer  to  the  detailed
       description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
            --info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity
            --debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
            --msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
            --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
             --old-dirs, --old-d works like --dirs when talking to old rsync
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
            --munge-links           munge symlinks to make them safer
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
        -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve modification times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
        -J, --omit-link-times       omit symlinks from --times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
            --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
        -S, --sparse                turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
            --preallocate           allocate dest files before writing
        -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
            --checksum-choice=STR   choose the checksum algorithms
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
            --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
            --delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --usermap=STRING        custom username mapping
            --groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
            --chown=USER:GROUP      simple username/groupname mapping
            --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
            --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
        -@, --modify-window=NUM     set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
            --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
            --old-args              disable the modern arg-protection idiom
        -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
            --trust-sender         trust the remote sender's file list
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --outbuf=N|L|B          set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
        -M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION to the remote side only
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
        -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE       override global daemon config parameter
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)


       Rsync  accepts  both  long  (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash + letter) options.
       The full list of the available options are described below.  If an option can be specified
       in  more  than  one  way,  the choices are comma-separated.  Some options only have a long
       variant, not a short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed after
       the  long variant, even though it must also be specified for the short.  When specifying a
       parameter, you can either use the form --option=param or replace the ’=’ with  whitespace.
       The  parameter  may  need  to  be  quoted  in  some  manner  for it to survive the shell’s
       command-line parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename is  substituted
       by  your  shell,  so  --option=~/foo  will  not  change the tilde into your home directory
       (remove the ’=’ for that).

       --help Print a short help page describing the options available in rsync  and  exit.   For
              backward-compatibility  with  older versions of rsync, the help will also be output
              if you use the -h option without any other args.

              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information you are given during the  transfer.
              By  default, rsync works silently. A single -v will give you information about what
              files are being transferred and a brief summary at the end.  Two  -v  options  will
              give  you information on what files are being skipped and slightly more information
              at the end. More than two -v options should only  be  used  if  you  are  debugging

              In  a  modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of groups of --info
              and --debug options.  You can choose to use these newer options in addition to,  or
              in  place  of  using  --verbose,  as any fine-grained settings override the implied
              settings of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that tells  you
              exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.

              However,  do  keep  in  mind that a daemon’s "max verbosity" setting will limit how
              high of a level the various individual flags can be set on the  daemon  side.   For
              instance,  if the max is 2, then any info and/or debug flag that is set to a higher
              value than what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to  the  -vv  level  in  the
              daemon’s logging.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the information output you want
              to see.  An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0  meaning
              to  silence  that  output,  1  being  the  default output level, and higher numbers
              increasing the output of that flag (for those that  support  higher  levels).   Use
              --info=help  to  see  all the available flag names, what they output, and what flag
              names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
                  rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

              Note  that   --info=name’s   output   is   affected   by   the   --out-format   and
              --itemize-changes  (-i) options.  See those options for more information on what is
              output and when.

              This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side  might  reject
              your  attempts  at  fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to be send to
              the server and the server was too old to  understand  them).   See  also  the  "max
              verbosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

              This  option  lets  you have fine-grained control over the debug output you want to
              see.  An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning  to
              silence  that  output,  1  being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher numbers
              increasing the output of that flag (for those that  support  higher  levels).   Use
              --debug=help  to  see all the available flag names, what they output, and what flag
              names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
                  rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

              Note that some debug messages will only be output when --msgs2stderr is  specified,
              especially those pertaining to I/O and buffer debugging.

              This  option  was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might reject
              your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to  be  send  to
              the  server  and  the  server  was  too old to understand them).  See also the "max
              verbosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

              This option changes rsync to send all its output directly to stderr rather than  to
              send  messages  to  the  client  side via the protocol (which normally outputs info
              messages via stdout).  This is mainly intended for  debugging  in  order  to  avoid
              changing  the  data sent via the protocol, since the extra protocol data can change
              what is being tested.  The option does not affect the remote  side  of  a  transfer
              without  using  --remote-option  -- e.g. -M--msgs2stderr.  Also keep in mind that a
              daemon connection does not have a stderr channel  to  send  messages  back  to  the
              client  side,  so if you are doing any daemon-transfer debugging using this option,
              you should start up a daemon using --no-detach so  that  you  can  see  the  stderr
              output on the daemon side.

              This  option  has the side-effect of making stderr output get line-buffered so that
              the merging of the output of 3 programs happens in a more readable manner.

       -q, --quiet
              This option decreases the amount of information you are given during the  transfer,
              notably  suppressing  information  messages  from the remote server. This option is
              useful when invoking rsync from cron.

              This option affects the information that is output by the client at the start of  a
              daemon  transfer.   This suppresses the message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also
              affects the list of modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
              request  (due  to  a  limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option if you
              want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size and have the same
              modification timestamp.  This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing
              all files to be updated.

              This modifies rsync’s "quick check" algorithm for finding files  that  need  to  be
              transferred,  changing  it  from  the  default  of transferring files with either a
              changed size or a changed last-modified time to just looking for  files  that  have
              changed  in  size.   This  is useful when starting to use rsync after using another
              mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps exactly.

       -@, --modify-window
              When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal  if  they
              differ  by  no  more than the modify-window value.  The default is 0, which matches
              just integer seconds.  If you specify a negative value  (and  the  receiver  is  at
              least  version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into account.  Specifying
              1 is useful for copies to/from MS Windows FAT filesystems, because  FAT  represents
              times  with a 2-second resolution (allowing times to differ from the original by up
              to 1 second).

              If you want all your transfers to default to comparing nanoseconds, you can  create
              a ~/.popt file and put these lines in it:

                 rsync alias -a -a@-1
                 rsync alias -t -t@-1

              With  that  as  the  default,  you’d need to specify --modify-window=0 (aka -@0) to
              override it and ignore nanoseconds, e.g. if you’re copying between ext3  and  ext4,
              or if the receiving rsync is older than 3.1.3.

       -c, --checksum
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed and are in need of
              a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses a  "quick  check"  that  (by  default)
              checks  if  each file’s size and time of last modification match between the sender
              and receiver.  This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file
              that  has  a  matching  size.   Generating the checksums means that both sides will
              expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files  in  the  transfer  (and
              this  is prior to any reading that will be done to transfer changed files), so this
              can slow things down significantly.

              The sending side generates its checksums while it is  doing  the  file-system  scan
              that  builds the list of the available files.  The receiver generates its checksums
              when it is scanning for changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same
              size  as  the  corresponding  sender’s file:  files with either a changed size or a
              changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note  that  rsync  always  verifies  that  each  transferred  file  was   correctly
              reconstructed  on  the  receiving  side  by  checking a whole-file checksum that is
              generated as  the  file  is  transferred,  but  that  automatic  after-the-transfer
              verification  has  nothing  to do with this option’s before-the-transfer "Does this
              file need to be updated?" check.

              For protocol 30 and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the checksum  used  is  MD5.
              For older protocols, the checksum used is MD4.

       -a, --archive
              This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you want recursion and
              want to preserve almost everything (with -H being a notable  omission).   The  only
              exception to the above equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case
              -r is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multiply-linked files  is
              expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

              You  may  turn  off  one  or more implied options by prefixing the option name with
              "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-": only options that are implied
              by  other  options  (e.g. --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in various
              circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).  You may specify
              either the short or the long option name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the
              same as --no-relative).

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don’t want -o (--owner), instead
              of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The  order  of  the  options is important:  if you specify --no-r -a, the -r option
              would end up being turned on, the opposite  of  -a  --no-r.   Note  also  that  the
              side-effects  of  the  --files-from  option  are  NOT positional, as it affects the
              default state of several options and slightly changes the meaning of  -a  (see  the
              --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also --dirs (-d).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an incremental scan
              that uses much less memory than before and begins the transfer after  the  scanning
              of  the  first  few  directories  have  been completed.  This incremental scan only
              affects our recursion algorithm, and does not change a non-recursive transfer.   It
              is also only possible when both ends of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options disable the
              incremental  recursion  mode.   These  include:  --delete-before,   --delete-after,
              --prune-empty-dirs,  and --delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete mode
              when you specify --delete is now --delete-during when both ends of  the  connection
              are  at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to request this improved deletion
              mode explicitly).  See also the --delete-delay option that is a better choice  than
              using --delete-after.

              Incremental  recursion  can  be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive option or its
              shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
              Use relative paths. This means that the full path names specified  on  the  command
              line  are sent to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames. This
              is particularly useful when you want to send several different directories  at  the
              same time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine. If instead
              you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c  would  be  created  on  the  remote  machine,
              preserving   its  full  path.   These  extra  path  elements  are  called  "implied
              directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied  directories  as  real
              directories  in  the  file  list, even if a path element is really a symlink on the
              sending side.  This prevents some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full
              path  of  a file that you didn’t realize had a symlink in its path.  If you want to
              duplicate a server-side symlink,  include  both  the  symlink  via  its  path,  and
              referent directory via its real path.  If you’re dealing with an older rsync on the
              sending side, you may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as implied
              directories  for  each  path  you specify.  With a modern rsync on the sending side
              (beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note that the dot must be
              followed by a slash, so "/foo/."  would  not  be  abbreviated.)   For  older  rsync
              versions,  you  would  need  to use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example,
              when pushing files:

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note that the parens put the two commands into  a  sub-shell,  so  that  the  "cd"
              command  doesn’t  remain  in  effect for future commands.)  If you’re pulling files
              from an older rsync, use this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This option affects the default behavior of the  --relative  option.   When  it  is
              specified,  the attributes of the implied directories from the source names are not
              included in the transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements  on  the
              destination  system  are  left  unchanged  if  they  exist, and any missing implied
              directories are created with default attributes.  This even  allows  these  implied
              path  elements  to  have big differences, such as being a symlink to a directory on
              the receiving side.

              For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told  rsync  to  transfer
              the  file  "path/foo/file",  the directories "path" and "path/foo" are implied when
              --relative is used.  If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,
              the receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory,
              and receive the file into the new directory.  With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving
              rsync  updates  "path/foo/file"  using the existing path elements, which means that
              the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to accomplish this  link
              preservation  is to use the --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect symlinks
              to directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this  option
              if  the sending side has a symlink in the path you request and you wish the implied
              directories to be transferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
              With this option, preexisting  destination  files  are  renamed  as  each  file  is
              transferred  or  deleted.   You can control where the backup file goes and what (if
              any) suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note that if you don’t specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times  option  will
              be  forced  on,  and (2) if --delete is also in effect (without --delete-excluded),
              rsync will add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your
              existing  excludes  (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent previously backed-up files
              from being deleted.  Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you  may
              need  to  manually  insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
              list so that it has a high enough priority to be effective  (e.g.,  if  your  rules
              specify  a  trailing inclusion/exclusion of ’*’, the auto-added rule would never be

              In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to store all  backups  in
              the  specified  directory  on the receiving side.  This can be used for incremental
              backups.  You can additionally specify a backup suffix using  the  --suffix  option
              (otherwise  the files backed up in the specified directory will keep their original

              Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be relative  to
              the  destination directory, so you probably want to specify either an absolute path
              or a path that starts with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver,  the  backup
              dir cannot go outside the module’s path hierarchy, so take extra care not to delete
              it or copy into it.

              This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the --backup
              (-b)  option. The default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise
              it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
              This forces rsync to skip any files which exist  on  the  destination  and  have  a
              modified time that is newer than the source file.  (If an existing destination file
              has a modification time equal to the source file’s, it will be updated if the sizes
              are different.)

              Note  that  this  does  not  affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or other special
              files.  Also, a difference of file format between the sender and receiver is always
              considered  to  be  important  enough  for an update, no matter what date is on the
              objects.  In other words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
              file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

              This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t affect the data that
              goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn’t affect deletions.  It just limits the
              files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              This  option  changes how rsync transfers a file when its data needs to be updated:
              instead of the default method of creating a new copy of the file and moving it into
              place  when  it  is complete, rsync instead writes the updated data directly to the
              destination file.

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data will be visible  through
                     other  hard  links  to  the  destination  file.   Moreover, attempts to copy
                     differing source files onto a multiply-linked destination file  will  result
                     in a "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.

              o      In-use  binaries  cannot  be  updated  (either the OS will prevent this from
                     happening, or binaries that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave  or

              o      The  file’s  data  will  be in an inconsistent state during the transfer and
                     will be left that way if the transfer is interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated. While a super user  can
                     update  any file, a normal user needs to be granted write permission for the
                     open of the file for writing to be successful.

              o      The efficiency of rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm may be  reduced  if  some
                     data  in  the  destination  file is overwritten before it can be copied to a
                     position later in the file.  This does not apply if you use --backup,  since
                     rsync  is  smart  enough  to  use  the backup file as the basis file for the

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are being accessed  by
              others, so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.

              This  option  is  useful  for  transferring large files with block-based changes or
              appended data, and also on systems that are disk bound, not network bound.  It  can
              also  help  keep  a  copy-on-write  filesystem  snapshot  from diverging the entire
              contents of a file that only has minor changes.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer  does  not  delete  the
              file),  but conflicts with --partial-dir and --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4
              --inplace was also incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto  the  end  of  the  file,
              which presumes that the data that already exists on the receiving side is identical
              with the start of the file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be  transferred
              and its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size on the sender, the
              file is skipped.  This does not interfere with the updating of a file’s non-content
              attributes  (e.g.  permissions,  ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be
              transferred, nor does it affect the updating of  any  non-regular  files.   Implies

              The  use  of  --append can be dangerous if you aren’t 100% sure that the files that
              are longer have only grown by the appending of data onto the end.  You should  thus
              use  include/exclude/filter  rules to ensure that such a transfer is only affecting
              files that you know to be growing via appended data.

              This works just like the --append option, but the existing data  on  the  receiving
              side  is  included  in the full-file checksum verification step, which will cause a
              file to be resent if the final  verification  step  fails  (rsync  uses  a  normal,
              non-appending --inplace transfer for the resend).

              Note:  prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like --append-verify, so if
              you are interacting with an older rsync (or the transfer is using a protocol  prior
              to 30), specifying either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
              Tell  the  sending  side  to  include any directories that are encountered.  Unlike
              --recursive, a directory’s contents  are  not  copied  unless  the  directory  name
              specified  is  "." or ends with a trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).
              Without this option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all  directories  it
              encounters (and output a message to that effect for each one).  If you specify both
              --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the  --list-only  option
              (including  an  implied --list-only usage) if --recursive wasn’t specified (so that
              directories are seen in the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to
              turn this off.

              There  is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs (or --old-d) that
              tells rsync to use a hack of "-r --exclude=’/*/*’" to get an older rsync to list  a
              single directory without recursing.

       -l, --links
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the destination.

       -L, --copy-links
              When  symlinks  are  encountered,  the  item  that  they point to (the referent) is
              copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions of rsync, this option also  had
              the  side-effect of telling the receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks
              to directories.  In a modern rsync  such  as  this  one,  you’ll  need  to  specify
              --keep-dirlinks  (-K)  to  get  this  extra  behavior.   The only exception is when
              sending files to an rsync that is too old to understand -K -- in that case, the  -L
              option will still have the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This  tells  rsync  to  copy  the referent of symbolic links that point outside the
              copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also treated like ordinary files,  and  so  are
              any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the copied  tree.
              All  absolute  symlinks  are  also  ignored.  Using this option in conjunction with
              --relative may give unexpected results.

              This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the receiving side in  a  way
              that makes them unusable but recoverable (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on
              the sending side that had been stored in a munged state.  This  is  useful  if  you
              don’t  quite  trust  the  source  of  the data to not try to slip in a symlink to a
              unexpected place.

              The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one  with  the  string
              "/rsyncd-munged/".   This  prevents  the  links  from  being  used  as long as that
              directory does not exist.  When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if
              that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.

              The  option  only  affects  the  client  side of the transfer, so if you need it to
              affect the server, specify it via --remote-option.  (Note that in a local transfer,
              the client side is the sender.)

              This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures whether it wants
              munged symlinks via its "munge symlinks" parameter.  See also the  "munge-symlinks"
              perl script in the support directory of the source code.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
              This  option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though it
              were  a  real  directory.   This  is  useful  if  you  don’t   want   symlinks   to
              non-directories to be affected, as they would be using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink to
              a directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in the way of the  new
              symlink,  including  a  directory  hierarchy  (as long as --force or --delete is in

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiving side.

              --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to directories in the source.  If you  want
              to  follow  only  a  few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is to pass them as
              additional source args with a trailing slash, using --relative to  make  the  paths
              match up right.  For example:

              rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This  works  because  rsync  calls  lstat(2)  on  the  source arg as given, and the
              trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink, giving rise to a directory in the
              file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This  option  causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory as though
              it were a real directory, but only if it matches a real directory from the  sender.
              Without  this  option,  the receiver’s symlink would be deleted and replaced with a
              real directory.

              For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains  a  file  "file",
              but   "foo"   is   a   symlink   to  directory  "bar"  on  the  receiver.   Without
              --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as  a  directory,
              and  receives  the file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust all  the  symlinks
              in  the  copy!  If it is possible for an untrusted user to create their own symlink
              to any directory, the user could then (on a subsequent copy)  replace  the  symlink
              with  a  real  directory  and  affect the content of whatever directory the symlink
              references.  For backup copies, you are better off  using  something  like  a  bind
              mount instead of a symlink to modify your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending side.

       -H, --hard-links
              This  tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and link together the
              corresponding files on the destination.  Without this option, hard-linked files  in
              the source are treated as though they were separate files.

              This  option  does  NOT  necessarily  ensure  that the pattern of hard links on the
              destination exactly matches that on the source.  Cases in which the destination may
              end up with extra hard links include the following:

              o      If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more linking than what is
                     present in the source file list), the copying algorithm will not break  them
                     explicitly.   However, if one or more of the paths have content differences,
                     the normal file-update process will break those extra links (unless you  are
                     using the --inplace option).

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard links, the linking
                     of the destination files against the --link-dest files can cause some  paths
                     in  the  destination  to  become  linked  together  due  to  the --link-dest

              Note that rsync can only detect hard  links  between  files  that  are  inside  the
              transfer  set.   If  rsync  updates  a file that has extra hard-link connections to
              files outside the transfer, that linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use
              the --inplace option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how your
              files are being updated so that you are certain that no unintended  changes  happen
              due to lingering hard links (and see the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If  incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may transfer a missing
              hard-linked file before it  finds  that  another  link  for  that  contents  exists
              elsewhere  in  the  hierarchy.   This  does not affect the accuracy of the transfer
              (i.e. which files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying  the
              data  for  a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have been found later
              in the transfer in another member of the hard-linked set of  files).   One  way  to
              avoid   this   inefficiency   is   to   disable  incremental  recursion  using  the
              --no-inc-recursive option.

       -p, --perms
              This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the
              same  as  the source permissions.  (See also the --chmod option for a way to modify
              what rsync considers to be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing files (including updated files) retain their existing  permissions,
                     though  the  --executability option might change just the execute permission
                     for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal"  permission  bits  set  to  the  source  file’s
                     permissions  masked  with  the  receiving  directory’s  default  permissions
                     (either the receiving process’s umask, or the permissions specified via  the
                     destination  directory’s  default  ACL),  and  their special permission bits
                     disabled except in the case where a new directory inherits a setgid bit from
                     its parent directory.

              Thus,  when  --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync’s behavior is the
              same as that of other file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both old and new)  the  source  permissions,
              use  --perms.  To give new files the destination-default permissions (while leaving
              existing files unchanged), make sure  that  the  --perms  option  is  off  and  use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures  that  all non-masked bits get enabled).  If you’d
              care to make this latter behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for
              it,  such  as  putting  this line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z
              option, and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):

                 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

                 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not  follow  -Z,  or  it  will  re-enable  the  two
              "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

              The  preservation of the destination’s setgid bit on newly-created directories when
              --perms is off  was  added  in  rsync  2.6.7.   Older  rsync  versions  erroneously
              preserved  the  three  special permission bits for newly-created files when --perms
              was off, while overriding the destination’s setgid bit setting on  a  newly-created
              directory.   Default  ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so
              older (or non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs  are  present.
              (Keep  in  mind  that  it  is the version of the receiving rsync that affects these

       -E, --executability
              This option causes rsync to preserve the executability  (or  non-executability)  of
              regular  files  when  --perms  is  not enabled.  A regular file is considered to be
              executable if at least one ’x’ is turned on in its permissions.  When  an  existing
              destination  file’s  executability  differs  from  that of the corresponding source
              file, rsync modifies the destination file’s permissions as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its ’x’ permissions.

              o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each ’x’  permission  that  has  a
                     corresponding ’r’ permission enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  update  the destination ACLs to be the same as the
              source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this option
              to work properly.  See the --fake-super option for a way to backup and restore ACLs
              that are not compatible.

       -X, --xattrs
              This option causes rsync to update the destination extended attributes  to  be  the
              same as the source ones.

              For  systems  that  support  extended-attribute  namespaces, a copy being done by a
              super-user copies all namespaces except system.*.  A normal user  only  copies  the
              user.* namespace.  To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal
              user, see the --fake-super option.

              The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or more filter options with
              the  x  modifier.  When  you specify an xattr-affecting filter rule, rsync requires
              that you do your own system/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for
              what xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be deleted.  For example,
              to skip the system namespace, you could specify:

              --filter=’-x system.*’

              To skip all namespaces except the user namespace, you could specify a  negated-user

              --filter=’-x! user.*’

              To  prevent  any  attributes  from being deleted, you could specify a receiver-only
              rule that excludes all names:

              --filter=’-xr *’

              Note that the -X option does not copy rsync’s special  xattr  values  (e.g.   those
              used  by  --fake-super)  unless  you  repeat the option (e.g. -XX).  This "copy all
              xattrs" mode cannot be used with --fake-super.

              This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" modes  to  the
              permission  of the files in the transfer.  The resulting value is treated as though
              it were the permissions that the sending side supplied for the  file,  which  means
              that  this  option  can  seem to have no effect on existing files if --perms is not

              In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you  can
              specify  an  item that should only apply to a directory by prefixing it with a ’D’,
              or specify an item that should only apply to a file by prefixing  it  with  a  ’F’.
              For  example,  the  following  will ensure that all directories get marked set-gid,
              that no files are other-writable, that both are user-writable  and  group-writable,
              and that both have consistent executability across all bits:


              Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


              It  is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional option is
              just appended to the list of changes to make.

              See the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission  value
              can be applied to the files in the transfer.

       -o, --owner
              This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the same as
              the source file, but only if the receiving rsync is being  run  as  the  super-user
              (see also the --super and --fake-super options).  Without this option, the owner of
              new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the receiving side.

              The preservation of ownership will associate matching names  by  default,  but  may
              fall  back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids
              option for a full discussion).

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the same as
              the  source file.  If the receiving program is not running as the super-user (or if
              --no-super was specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side
              is  a  member  of  will be preserved.  Without this option, the group is set to the
              default group of the invoking user on the receiving side.

              The preservation of group information will associate matching names by default, but
              may  fall  back  to  using  the  ID  number  in  some  circumstances  (see also the
              --numeric-ids option for a full discussion).

              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote
              system to recreate these devices.  This option has no effect if the receiving rsync
              is not run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with  the  files  and  update
              them  on the remote system.  Note that if this option is not used, the optimization
              that excludes files that have not been  modified  cannot  be  effective;  in  other
              words,  a missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it used -I,
              causing all files to be updated (though rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm will  make
              the  update  fairly  efficient  if  the files haven’t actually changed, you’re much
              better off using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modification times  (see
              --times).   If  NFS  is sharing the directories on the receiving side, it is a good
              idea to use -O.  This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

              This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation of  directories  in
              incremental recursion copies.  The default --inc-recursive copying normally does an
              early-create pass of all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for  it
              to  be able to then set the modify time of the parent directory right away (without
              having to delay that until a  bunch  of  recursive  copying  has  finished).   This
              early-create  idiom  is  not  necessary  if  directory  modify  times are not being
              preserved, so it is skipped.  Since early-create directories  don’t  have  accurate
              mode,  mtime,  or  ownership, the use of this option can help when someone wants to
              avoid these partially-finished directories.

       -J, --omit-link-times
              This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is  preserving  modification  times  (see

              This  tells  the  receiving  side  to  attempt  super-user  activities  even if the
              receiving rsync wasn’t run by the super-user.  These activities include: preserving
              users  via  the  --owner option, preserving all groups (not just the current user’s
              groups) via the --groups option, and copying  devices  via  the  --devices  option.
              This is useful for systems that allow such activities without being the super-user,
              and also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving  side  isn’t  being
              run  as  the super-user.  To turn off super-user activities, the super-user can use

              When  this  option  is  enabled,   rsync   simulates   super-user   activities   by
              saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special extended attributes that are
              attached to each file (as needed).  This includes the file’s owner and group (if it
              is  not the default), the file’s device info (device & special files are created as
              empty text files), and any permission bits that we won’t allow to  be  set  on  the
              real file (e.g.  the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the
              owner’s access (since the real super-user can  always  access/change  a  file,  the
              files  we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).  This option
              also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified) and non-user  extended  attributes  (if
              --xattrs was specified).

              This  is  a  good  way to backup data without using a super-user, and to store ACLs
              from incompatible systems.

              The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is used.  To  affect
              the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

                rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

              For  a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.  If you
              wish a local copy to enable this option just for  the  destination  files,  specify
              -M--fake-super.  If you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the source
              files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon’s rsyncd.conf file.

       -S, --sparse
              Try to handle  sparse  files  efficiently  so  they  take  up  less  space  on  the
              destination.   If  combined  with  --inplace the file created might not end up with
              sparse blocks with some combinations of kernel version and/or filesystem type.   If
              --whole-file  is in effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work because
              rsync truncates the file prior to writing out the updated version.

              Note that versions of rsync  older  than  3.1.3  will  reject  the  combination  of
              --sparse and --inplace.

              This  tells  the  receiver  to  allocate each destination file to its eventual size
              before writing data to the file.  Rsync will only  use  the  real  filesystem-level
              preallocation  support  provided  by  Linux’s  fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin’s
              posix_fallocate(3), not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null byte  into
              each block.

              Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous on the filesystem,
              but with this option rsync will probably copy more slowly.  If the  destination  is
              not  an  extent-supporting  filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option
              may have no positive effect at all.

              If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse  blocks  (as  opposed  to
              allocated  sequences  of  null  bytes)  if  the  kernel version and filesystem type
              support creating holes in the allocated data.

       -n, --dry-run
              This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn’t make any  changes  (and  produces
              mostly  the  same  output  as a real run).  It is most commonly used in combination
              with the -v, --verbose and/or -i, --itemize-changes options to see  what  an  rsync
              command is going to do before one actually runs it.

              The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same on a dry run and
              a subsequent real run (barring intentional trickery and system call  failures);  if
              it isn’t, that’s a bug.  Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in
              some areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for  file  transfers,
              so  --progress  has  no effect, the "bytes sent", "bytes received", "literal data",
              and "matched data" statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is  equivalent
              to a run where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
              This option disables rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm, which causes all transferred
              files to be sent whole.  The transfer may be faster if this option is used when the
              bandwidth  between the source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth
              to disk (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked filesystem).   This  is
              the  default when both the source and destination are specified as local paths, but
              only if no batch-writing option is in effect.

              This option overrides the checksum algoriths.  If one algorithm name is  specified,
              it  is  used  for both the transfer checksums and (assuming --checksum is specifed)
              the pre-transfer checksumming. If two comma-separated names are supplied, the first
              name  affects  the transfer checksums, and the second name affects the pre-transfer

              The algorithm choices are "auto", "md4", "md5", and "none".  If "none" is specified
              for  the  first  name,  the  --whole-file  option  is  forced  on  and  no checksum
              verification is performed on the transferred data.  If "none" is specified for  the
              second  name,  the  --checksum  option  cannot  be  used.  The "auto" option is the
              default, where rsync bases its  algorithm  choice  on  the  protocol  version  (for
              backward compatibility with older rsync versions).

       -x, --one-file-system
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing.  This does
              not limit the user’s ability to specify items to copy  from  multiple  filesystems,
              just  rsync’s  recursion  through  the  hierarchy  of  each directory that the user
              specified, and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during  deletion.
              Also  keep  in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as being on
              the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the  copy.
              Otherwise,  it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it encounters (using
              the attributes of the mounted directory because those of the underlying mount-point
              directory are inaccessible).

              If   rsync   has   been   told   to   collapse   symlinks   (via   --copy-links  or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device is treated like  a
              mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This  tells  rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do not exist
              yet on the destination.  If this option  is  combined  with  the  --ignore-existing
              option,  no  files  will  be  updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is
              delete extraneous files).

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t affect the data  that
              goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn’t affect deletions.  It just limits the
              files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the destination (this
              does  not  ignore  existing  directories,  or  nothing  would  get done).  See also

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t affect the data  that
              goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn’t affect deletions.  It just limits the
              files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option can be useful for those doing backups using the --link-dest option when
              they  need  to continue a backup run that got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run
              is copied into a new directory hierarchy (when it is used properly), using --ignore
              existing will ensure that the already-handled files don’t get tweaked (which avoids
              a change in permissions on the hard-linked files).  This does mean that this option
              is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

              This   tells   rsync   to   remove   from  the  sending  side  the  files  (meaning
              non-directories) that are a  part  of  the  transfer  and  have  been  successfully
              duplicated on the receiving side.

              Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that are quiescent.  If
              you are using this to move files that show up in a  particular  directory  over  to
              another  host,  make  sure  that  the  finished  files  get renamed into the source
              directory, not directly written into it, so that rsync can’t  possibly  transfer  a
              file  that  is  not  yet  fully written.  If you can’t first write the files into a
              different  directory,  you  should  use  a  naming  idiom  that  lets  rsync  avoid
              transferring  files that are not yet finished (e.g. name the file "" when it
              is written, rename  it  to  "foo"  when  it  is  done,  and  then  use  the  option
              --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

              Starting  with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and output an error)
              if the file’s size or modify time has not stayed unchanged.

              This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from  the  receiving  side  (ones  that
              aren’t  on  the  sending  side),  but  only  for  the  directories  that  are being
              synchronized.  You must have asked rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or
              "dir/")  without using a wildcard for the directory’s contents (e.g. "dir/*") since
              the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets  a  request  to  transfer
              individual  files,  not  the files’ parent directory.  Files that are excluded from
              the  transfer  are  also  excluded  from  being  deleted   unless   you   use   the
              --delete-excluded  option  or  mark  the rules as only matching on the sending side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would  have  no  effect  unless  --recursive  was
              enabled.   Beginning  with  2.6.7,  deletions  will  also occur when --dirs (-d) is
              enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very good idea to  first
              try  a  run  using  the  --dry-run  option  (-n)  to see what files are going to be

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files  at  the
              destination will be automatically disabled. This is to prevent temporary filesystem
              failures (such as NFS errors) on the sending side from causing a  massive  deletion
              of  files  on  the  destination.   You  can  override this with the --ignore-errors

              The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN  options  without
              conflict,  as  well  as  --delete-excluded.   However, if none of the --delete-WHEN
              options are specified, rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking
              to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and the --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older
              rsync.  See also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done before  the  transfer
              starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting  before  the  transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space and
              removing extraneous files would help to make the transfer  possible.   However,  it
              does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause
              the transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also forces rsync to  use
              the  old,  non-incremental  recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the
              files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally as  the
              transfer  happens.   The  per-directory  delete  scan  is  done  right  before each
              directory  is  checked  for  updates,  so  it  behaves  like   a   more   efficient
              --delete-before,  including  doing  the deletions prior to any per-directory filter
              files being updated.  This option was first added  in  rsync  version  2.6.4.   See
              --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request  that  the  file-deletions  on  the  receiving  side be computed during the
              transfer (like --delete-during), and then removed  after  the  transfer  completes.
              This  is  useful  when  combined  with  --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more
              efficient  than  using  --delete-after   (but   can   behave   differently,   since
              --delete-after  computes  the  deletions  in  a separate pass after all updates are
              done).  If the number of removed files overflows an internal  buffer,  a  temporary
              file  will  be created on the receiving side to hold the names (it is removed while
              open, so you shouldn’t see it  during  the  transfer).   If  the  creation  of  the
              temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which it
              cannot do if --recursive is doing an incremental scan).   See  --delete  (which  is
              implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done after the transfer
              has completed.  This is useful if you are sending new per-directory merge files  as
              a  part of the transfer and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete
              phase  of  the  current  transfer.   It  also  forces  rsync  to   use   the   old,
              non-incremental  recursion  algorithm  that requires rsync to scan all the files in
              the transfer into memory  at  once  (see  --recursive).   See  --delete  (which  is
              implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending
              side, this tells rsync to also delete any files on  the  receiving  side  that  are
              excluded  (see  --exclude).   See  the  FILTER  RULES  section  for  a  way to make
              individual exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and for  a  way  to  protect
              files  from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on

              When rsync  is  first  processing  the  explicitly  requested  source  files  (e.g.
              command-line  arguments  or  --files-from  entries), it is normally an error if the
              file cannot be found.  This option suppresses that  error,  and  does  not  try  to
              transfer  the file.  This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file
              was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

              This option takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-missing-args option a step
              farther:   each  missing  arg  will  become a deletion request of the corresponding
              destination file on the receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination  file
              is  a  non-empty  directory,  it  will  only  be successfully deleted if --force or
              --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option is independent of  any  other
              type of delete processing.

              The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries which display
              as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only output.

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors.

              This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to  be  replaced
              by  a  non-directory.   This  is  only  relevant  if  deletions are not active (see
              --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions:  --force  used  to  still  be  required  when  using
              --delete-after,  and it used to be non-functional unless the --recursive option was
              also enabled.

              This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.  If  that  limit
              is exceeded, all further deletions are skipped through the end of the transfer.  At
              the end, rsync outputs a warning (including a count of the skipped  deletions)  and
              exits  with  an  error  code of 25 (unless some more important error condition also

              Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be warned about any
              extraneous  files  in  the destination without removing any of them.  Older clients
              interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don’t know what version the  client  is,
              you  can  use  the  less  obvious  --max-delete=-1  as a backward-compatible way to
              specify that no deletions be allowed (though really old versions didn’t  warn  when
              the limit was exceeded).

              This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than the specified
              SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a  size  multiplier,
              and may be a fractional value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t affect the data that
              goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn’t affect deletions.  It just limits the
              files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is
              a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If  you
              want  the  multiplier  to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB", "MB", or "GB".  (Note:
              lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if the suffix ends in either
              "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset by one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples:  --max-size=1.5mb-1  is  1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-size=0.

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the  specified
              SIZE,  which  can  help  in not transferring small, junk files.  See the --max-size
              option for a description of SIZE and other information.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-size=0.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This forces the block size used in rsync’s  delta-transfer  algorithm  to  a  fixed
              value.   It is normally selected based on the size of each file being updated.  See
              the technical report for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell  program  to  use  for
              communication  between  the  local  and remote copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is
              configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell COMMAND
              will  be  used  to  run  an  rsync  daemon on the remote host, and all data will be
              transmitted through that remote shell connection,  rather  than  through  a  direct
              socket  connection  to  a running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See the section

              Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is  presented
              to  rsync as a single argument.  You must use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace)
              to separate the command and args from each other, and you can  use  single-  and/or
              double-quotes  to  preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes).  Note that
              doubling a single-quote inside a single-quoted string  gives  you  a  single-quote;
              likewise  for  double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes your
              shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note that ssh users can alternately customize  site-specific  connect  options  in
              their .ssh/config file.)

              You  can  also  choose  the  remote  shell  program using the RSYNC_RSH environment
              variable, which accepts the same range of values as -e.

              See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this option.

              Use this to specify what program is to be run on the  remote  machine  to  start-up
              rsync.   Often  used  when  rsync  is  not in the default remote-shell’s path (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run with the  help  of  a
              shell,  so it can be any program, script, or command sequence you’d care to run, so
              long as it does not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is  using  to

              One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on the remote machine
              for use with the --relative option.  For instance:

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -M, --remote-option=OPTION
              This option is used for more advanced situations where you want certain effects  to
              be  limited  to  one  side of the transfer only.  For instance, if you want to pass
              --log-file=FILE and --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

                  rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

              If you want to have an option affect only the local side  of  a  transfer  when  it
              normally affects both sides, send its negation to the remote side.  Like this:

                  rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

              Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause rsync
              to have a different idea about what data to expect next over the socket,  and  that
              will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.

              Note  that you should use a separate -M for each remote option you want to pass. On
              older rsync versions, the presence of any spaces in  the  remote-option  arg  could
              cause  it  to  be  split  into  separate  remote args, but this requires the use of
              --old-args in this version of rsync.

              When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and  the  "remote"
              side is the receiver.

              Note  some  versions  of  the  popt  option-parsing library have a bug in them that
              prevents you from using an adjacent arg with an equal in it next to a short  option
              letter (e.g. -M--log-file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your version of popt, you
              can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range  of  files  that  you  often
              don’t  want  to  transfer  between  systems.  It uses a similar algorithm to CVS to
              determine if a file should be ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these initial items
              are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):

                     RCS  SCCS  CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~
                     #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb  *.o  *.obj
                     *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

              then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed
              in the CVSIGNORE  environment  variable  (all  cvsignore  names  are  delimited  by

              Finally,  any  file  is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file
              and matches one of the patterns  listed  therein.   Unlike  rsync’s  filter/exclude
              files,  these  patterns  are  split  on whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more

              If you’re combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS
              excludes  are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was
              placed on the command-line.  This makes them a lower priority than  any  rules  you
              specified explicitly.  If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted
              into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and  use  a
              combination  of  --filter=:C  and  --filter=-C  (either  on your command-line or by
              putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with  your  other  rules).   The
              first  option  turns  on  the  per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore file.  The
              second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files  from  the
              list  of  files  to  be  transferred.  This  is  most  useful in combination with a
              recursive transfer.

              You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like  to  build  up
              the  list of files to exclude.  If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote
              it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument.  The text  below
              also  mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a
              rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to  your  command.   The
              first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This  tells  rsync  to  look  for  per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been
              sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to  filter  the  files  in  the
              transfer.  If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude
              rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

              This option is related to the --exclude  option,  but  it  specifies  a  FILE  that
              contains  exclude  patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank  lines in the file and lines
              starting with ’;’ or ’#’ are ignored.  If FILE is -, the list  will  be  read  from
              standard input.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include
              rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

              This option is related to the --include  option,  but  it  specifies  a  FILE  that
              contains  include  patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank  lines in the file and lines
              starting with ’;’ or ’#’ are ignored.  If FILE is -, the list  will  be  read  from
              standard input.

              Using  this  option  allows  you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as
              read from the specified FILE or - for standard input).  It also tweaks the  default
              behavior  of  rsync  to  make transferring just the specified files and directories

              o      The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path  information
                     that  is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if
                     you want to turn that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create  directories  specified
                     in  the  list  on  the  destination  rather  than noisily skipping them (use
                     --no-dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The --archive (-a) option’s behavior does not  imply  --recursive  (-r),  so
                     specify it explicitly, if you want it.

              o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the
                     --files-from option on the command-line has no bearing on how other  options
                     are  parsed  (e.g.  -a  works the same before or after --files-from, as does
                     --no-R and all other options).

              The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any
              leading  slashes  are  removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than
              the source dir.  For example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will
              be  created  as  /backup/bin  on  the remote host.  If it contains "bin/" (note the
              trailing slash), the immediate  contents  of  the  directory  would  also  be  sent
              (without  needing  to  be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version
              2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir’s  entire  hierarchy
              would  also  be  transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly
              with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
              the  (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that
              is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec  path
              (/usr in this case).

              In  addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the
              local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must  match  one
              end of the transfer).  As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean
              "use the remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This would copy all the files  specified  in  the  /path/file-list  file  that  was
              located on the remote "src" host.

              If  the  --iconv  and  --protect-args  options  are  specified and the --files-from
              filenames are being sent from one host to another, the filenames will be translated
              from the sending host’s charset to the receiving host’s charset.

              NOTE:  sorting  the  list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more
              efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are  shared  between
              adjacent  entries.   If  the  input  is  not  sorted,  some  path elements (implied
              directories) may end up being scanned multiple times,  and  rsync  will  eventually
              unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements.

       -0, --from0
              This  tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a
              null (’\0’) character, not a  NL,  CR,  or  CR+LF.   This  affects  --exclude-from,
              --include-from,  --files-from,  and  any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
              It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore  file  are
              split on whitespace).

              This  option  tells  rsync to stop trying to protect the arg values from unintended
              word-splitting or other misinterpretation by using its new backslash-escape  idiom.
              The newest default is for remote filenames to only allow wildcards characters to be
              interpretated by the shell while protecting other shell-interpreted characters (and
              the  args  of  options  get  even  wildcards  escaped).   The  only active wildcard
              characters on the remote side are: `*`, `?`, `[`, & `]`.

              If you have a script that wants to use old-style arg splitting  in  the  filenames,
              specify  this  option  once.   If the remote shell has a problem with any backslash
              escapes, specify the option twice.

              You may also control this setting via the RSYNC_OLD_ARGS environment variable.   If
              it has the value "1", rsync will default to a single-option setting.  If it has the
              value "2" (or more), rsync will default to a repeated-option  setting.   If  it  is
              "0",  you'll  get  the  default  escaping  behavior.   The  environment  is  always
              overridden by manually specified positive or  negative  options  (the  negative  is

              Note that this option also disables the extra safety check added in this version of
              rsync, that ensures that a remote sender isn't including extra top-level  items  in
              the  file-list  that  you didn't request.  This side-effect is necessary because we
              can't know for sure what names to expect when the remote shell is interpreting  the

              This option conflicts with the --protect-args option.

       -s, --protect-args
              This  option  sends  all  filenames  and  most  options to the remote rsync without
              allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  Wildcards are expanded on the  remote
              host by rsync instead of the shell doing it.

              This  is similar to the new-style backslash-escaping of args that was added in this
              version of rsync, but supports some extra features and doesn't  rely  on  backslash
              escaping in the remote shell.

              If  you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the remote side will also
              be translated from the local to the remote character-set.  The translation  happens
              before wild-cards are expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

              You  may also control this setting via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS environment variable.
              If it has a non-zero value, this setting will be enabled by default,  otherwise  it
              will  be  disabled  by default.  Either state is overridden by a manually specified
              positive or negative version of this option (note that --no-s and --no-protect-args
              are the negative versions).  This environment variable is also superseded by a non-
              zero RSYNC_OLD_ARGS export.

              You may need to disable this option when interacting with an older rsync (one prior
              to 3.0.0).

              This option conflicts with the --old-args option.

              Note  that  this option is incompatible with the use of the restricted rsync script
              (`rrsync`) since it hides options from the script's inspection.

              Disable the extra validation of the file list from a  remote  sender  (this  safety
              feature   was   added  to  address  the  performance  downgrade  after  fixing  CVE
              2022-29154).  This should only be done if you trust the sender to  not  try  to  do
              something malicious, which should be the case if they're running a stock rsync.

              Normally when pulling files from a remote rsync, the client runs 2 extra validation

              o      Verify that additional arg  items  didn't  get  added  at  the  top  of  the

              o      Verify that none of the items in the file list should have been excluded.

              Note  that  various  options can turn off one or both of these checks if the option
              interferes with the validation.  For instance:

              o      Using a per-directory filter file reads filter rules that  only  the  server
                     knows about, so the filter checking is disabled.

              o      Using  the  --old-args  option allows the sender to manipulate the requested
                     args, so the arg checking is disabled.

              o      Reading the files-from list from the  server  side  means  that  the  client
                     doesn't know the arg list, so the arg checking is disabled.

              o      Using --read-batch disables both checks since the batch file's contents will
                     have been verified when it was created.

              This option may help an under-powered client server if the extra  pattern  matching
              is  slowing  things  down on a huge transfer.  It can also be used to work around a
              bug in the verification logic, possibly after using the --list-only option combined
              with --trust-sender to look over the full file list.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  as  a scratch directory when creating
              temporary copies of the files transferred  on  the  receiving  side.   The  default
              behavior  is  to create each temporary file in the same directory as the associated
              destination file.  Beginning with rsync  3.1.1,  the  temp-file  names  inside  the
              specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though they will still have a
              random suffix added).

              This option is most often used when the receiving  disk  partition  does  not  have
              enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.  In this case
              (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will  not
              be  able  to  rename  each  received  temporary file over the top of the associated
              destination file, but instead must copy it into place.  Rsync does this by  copying
              the  file  over  the  top of the destination file, which means that the destination
              file will contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done this  way
              (even  if  the  destination  file  were first removed, the data locally copied to a
              temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it  would
              be  possible  for  the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the new version on  the  disk
              at the same time.

              If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk space, you
              may wish to combine it with the --delay-updates option, which will ensure that  all
              copied files get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the
              end of the transfer.  If you don’t have enough room to duplicate all  the  arriving
              files  on  the  destination  partition,  another  way to tell rsync that you aren’t
              overly concerned about disk space  is  to  use  the  --partial-dir  option  with  a
              relative  path;  because  this  tells  rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a
              single file  in  a  subdir  in  the  destination  hierarchy,  rsync  will  use  the
              partial-dir  as  a  staging  area to bring over the copied file, and then rename it
              into place from there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path  does  not
              have this side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
              This  option  tells  rsync that it should look for a basis file for any destination
              file that is missing.  The current algorithm looks in the  same  directory  as  the
              destination file for either a file that has an identical size and modified-time, or
              a similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to  speed
              up the transfer.

              If  the  option  is  repeated,  the  fuzzy  scan  will also be done in any matching
              alternate  destination  directories  that   are   specified   via   --compare-dest,
              --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match
              files, so either use --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need
              to prevent this.

              This  option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an additional
              hierarchy to compare destination files against doing transfers (if  the  files  are
              missing in the destination directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical
              to the sender’s  file,  the  file  will  NOT  be  transferred  to  the  destination
              directory.   This  is  useful  for creating a sparse backup of just files that have
              changed from an earlier backup.  This option is typically  used  to  copy  into  an
              empty (or newly created) directory.

              Beginning  in  version  2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories may be provided,
              which will cause rsync to search the list in  the  order  specified  for  an  exact
              match.   If  a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made
              and the attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one of  the
              DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If  DIR  is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also
              --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will  remove  a  file  from  a  non-empty
              destination  hierarchy  if  an  exact  match  is  found  in one of the compare-dest
              hierarchies (making the end result more closely match a fresh copy).

              This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy  unchanged  files
              found  in  DIR to the destination directory using a local copy.  This is useful for
              doing transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files intact, and  then
              doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred.

              Multiple  --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search
              the list in the order specified for an unchanged file.  If a match is not found,  a
              basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If  DIR  is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also
              --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from  DIR
              to  the  destination  directory.   The  files  must  be  identical in all preserved
              attributes (e.g. permissions, possibly ownership) in order  for  the  files  to  be
              linked together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If  file’s  aren’t  linking,  double-check  their  attributes.   Also check if some
              attributes are getting forced outside of rsync’s control, such a mount option  that
              squishes  root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic ownership
              (such as OS X’s "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which
              will  cause  rsync  to  search  the  list in the order specified for an exact match
              (there is a limit of 20 such directories).  If a match is found that  differs  only
              in  attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If a match is not
              found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to  speed  up  the

              This  option  works  best  when  copying  into  an  empty destination hierarchy, as
              existing files may get their attributes tweaked,  and  that  can  affect  alternate
              destination  files  via  hard-links.   Also,  itemizing  of  changes  can get a bit
              muddled.  Note that prior to version  3.1.0,  an  alternate-directory  exact  match
              would  never  be  found  (nor  linked into the destination) when a destination file
              already exists.

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not  link  any
              files  together  because it only links identical files together as a substitute for
              transferring the file, never as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.   See  also
              --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note  that  rsync  versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent --link-dest
              from working properly for a non-super-user when -o was  specified  (or  implied  by
              -a).  You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old

       -z, --compress
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to  the  destination
              machine,  which  reduces  the amount of data being transmitted -- something that is
              useful over a slow connection.

              Note that this option typically achieves better  compression  ratios  than  can  be
              achieved  by using a compressing remote shell or a compressing transport because it
              takes advantage of the implicit information in the matching data  blocks  that  are
              not explicitly sent over the connection.  This matching-data compression comes at a
              cost of CPU, though, and can be disabled by repeating the -z option,  but  only  if
              both sides are at least version 3.1.1.

              Note  that  if your version of rsync was compiled with an external zlib (instead of
              the zlib that comes packaged with rsync) then it will  not  support  the  old-style
              compression,  only the new-style (repeated-option) compression.  In the future this
              new-style compression will likely become the default.

              The  client  rsync  requests  new-style  compression  on   the   server   via   the
              --new-compress  option, so if you see that option rejected it means that the server
              is not new enough to support -zz.  Rsync also accepts the --old-compress option for
              a future time when new-style compression becomes the default.

              See  the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suffixes that will not
              be compressed.

              Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress) instead of letting  it
              default.  If NUM is non-zero, the --compress option is implied.

              Override the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.  The LIST should be
              one or more file suffixes (without the dot) separated by slashes (/).

              You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped.

              Simple character-class matching is supported:  each  must  consist  of  a  list  of
              letters  inside  the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]",
              are supported, and ’-’ has no special meaning).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning.

              Here’s an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches
              2 suffixes):


              The  default  list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in this version
              of rsync):

              7z ace avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4 ogg png rar rpm rzip
              tbz tgz tlz txz xz z zip

              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situation: a
              copy  from  a  daemon  rsync  will  add  your  skipped  suffixes  to  its  list  of
              non-compressing files (and its list may be configured to a different default).

              With  this  option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather than using
              user and group names and mapping them at both ends.

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what ownership to
              give  files.  The  special  uid  0  and  the  special  group 0 are never mapped via
              user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or  it  has  no  match  on  the
              destination  system,  then  the  numeric ID from the source system is used instead.
              See also the comments on the "use chroot" setting in the  rsyncd.conf  manpage  for
              information  on how the chroot setting affects rsync’s ability to look up the names
              of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
              These options allow you to specify users and groups that should be mapped to  other
              values  by  the  receiving side.  The STRING is one or more FROM:TO pairs of values
              separated by commas.  Any matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO
              value from the receiver.  You may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and TO
              values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-card string, which  will  be  matched
              against  the sender’s names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see
              below for why a ’*’ matches everything).  You may instead specify  a  range  of  ID
              numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For example:

                --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

              The  first  match in the list is the one that is used.  You should specify all your
              user mappings using a single --usermap option, and/or all your group mappings using
              a single --groupmap option.

              Note  that  the  sender’s  name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted to the
              receiver, so you should either match these values using a 0, or use  the  names  in
              effect  on the receiving side (typically "root").  All other FROM names match those
              in use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the receiving side.

              Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an  empty
              name  for  the  purpose  of  matching.  This allows them to be matched via a "*" or
              using an empty name.  For instance:

                --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

              When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send any names,  so  all
              the  IDs  are  treated  as  having an empty name.  This means that you will need to
              specify numeric FROM values if you want to map  these  nameless  IDs  to  different

              For  the  --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner) option must be used
              (or implied), and the receiver will need to be running as a  super-user  (see  also
              the  --fake-super  option).   For  the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g
              (--groups) option must be used (or implied), and the receiver  will  need  to  have
              permissions to set that group.

              An  older  rsync  client  may  need to use --protect-args (-s) to avoid a complaint
              about wildcard characters, but a modern rsync handles this automatically.

              This option forces all files to be owned by USER  with  group  GROUP.   This  is  a
              simpler  interface  than  using  --usermap  and  --groupmap  directly,  but  it  is
              implemented using those options internally, so you cannot mix them.  If either  the
              USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.  If GROUP
              is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading  colon
              must be supplied.

              If   you   specify  "--chown=foo:bar,  this  is  exactly  the  same  as  specifying
              "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.

              An older rsync client may need to use --protect-args  (-s)  to  avoid  a  complaint
              about wildcard characters, but a modern rsync handles this automatically.

              This  option  allows  you  to  set  a maximum I/O timeout in seconds. If no data is
              transferred for the specified time then rsync will exit. The default  is  0,  which
              means no timeout.

              This  option  allows  you  to  set  the amount of time that rsync will wait for its
              connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.  If the timeout is reached,  rsync  exits
              with an error.

              By  default  rsync  will  bind  to the wildcard address when connecting to an rsync
              daemon.  The --address option allows you to  specify  a  specific  IP  address  (or
              hostname) to bind to.  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This  specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of 873.
              This is only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to  connect  with
              an  rsync  daemon  (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of
              the URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune  their  systems  to
              the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers
              faster (or slower!). Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
              on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no special socket options
              are set. This only affects direct socket connections  to  a  remote  rsync  daemon.
              This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

              This  tells  rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell transport.  If
              the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync  defaults  to  using  blocking  I/O,
              otherwise   it  defaults  to  using  non-blocking  I/O.   (Note  that  ssh  prefers
              non-blocking I/O.)

              This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka Unbuffered),  Line,
              or  Block  (aka  Full).  You may specify as little as a single letter for the mode,
              and use upper or lower case.

              The main use of this option is to change Full  buffering  to  Line  buffering  when
              rsync’s output is going to a file or pipe.

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests  a  simple  itemized list of the changes that are being made to each file,
              including  attribute  changes.   This   is   exactly   the   same   as   specifying
              --out-format='%i  %n%L'.   If  you  repeat the option, unchanged files will also be
              output, but only if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use  -vv
              with  older  versions  of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other verbose

              The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.  The  general  format
              is  like  the  string  YXcstpoguax, where Y is replaced by the type of update being
              done, X is replaced by the file-type, and the other  letters  represent  attributes
              that may be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received).

              o      A  c  means  that a local change/creation is occurring for the item (such as
                     the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h  means  that  the  item  is  a  hard  link  to  another  item  (requires

              o      A  .  means  that  the  item  is  not  being  updated  (though it might have
                     attributes that are being modified).

              o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains a message (e.g.

              The  file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for
              a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a special file  (e.g.  named  sockets  and

              The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that will be output if
              the associated attribute for the item is being updated or  a  "."  for  no  change.
              Three  exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with a
              "+", (2) an identical item replaces the  dots  with  spaces,  and  (3)  an  unknown
              attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can happen when talking to an older

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means either that a regular file  has  a  different  checksum  (requires
                     --checksum)  or that a symlink, device, or special file has a changed value.
                     Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1,  this  change
                     flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.

              o      A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the
                     file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is  being  updated  to  the
                     sender’s  value  (requires --times).  An alternate value of T means that the
                     modification time will be set to the transfer time,  which  happens  when  a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a symlink is changed
                     and the receiver can’t set its time.   (Note:  when  using  an  rsync  3.0.0
                     client,  you  might  see  the s flag combined with t instead of the proper T
                     flag for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A p means the permissions  are  different  and  are  being  updated  to  the
                     sender’s value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender’s value
                     (requires --owner and super-user privileges).

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender’s  value
                     (requires --group and the authority to set the group).

              o      The u slot is reserved for future use.

              o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

              o      The x means that the extended attribute information changed.

              One other output is possible:  when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string
              "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a
              recent  enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user  on  a
              per-update basis.  The format is a text string containing embedded single-character
              escape sequences prefixed with a percent  (%)  character.    A  default  format  of
              "%n%L" is assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you just the
              name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points).  For a full list  of
              the  possible  escape  characters,  see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf

              Specifying the --out-format option  implies  the  --info=name  option,  which  will
              mention  each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred
              file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory).   In  addition,  if  the
              itemize-changes   escape   (%i)   is   included   in   the   string  (e.g.  if  the
              --itemize-changes option was used), the logging of names increases to  mention  any
              item  that is changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).
              See the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file’s transfer  unless  one  of
              the  transfer-statistic  escapes is requested, in which case the logging is done at
              the end of the file’s transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress
              is  also  specified,  rsync will also output the name of the file being transferred
              prior to its progress information (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.  This is similar to the
              logging  that  a  daemon  does, but can be requested for the client side and/or the
              server side of a non-daemon transfer.  If specified as a  client  option,  transfer
              logging   will   be   enabled  with  a  default  format  of  "%i  %n%L".   See  the
              --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here’s a example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening:

                rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly.

              This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is  put  into  the  file
              specified by the --log-file option (which must also be specified for this option to
              have any effect).  If you specify an  empty  string,  updated  files  will  not  be
              mentioned  in  the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see the
              "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this option is  not  is  ’%i

              This  tells  rsync  to  print  a  verbose  set  of statistics on the file transfer,
              allowing you to tell how effective rsync’s delta-transfer  algorithm  is  for  your
              data.   This  option  is  equivalent  to  --info=stats2  if combined with 0 or 1 -v
              options, or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the  generic  sense),  which
                     includes  directories, symlinks, etc.  The total count will be followed by a
                     list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For example:  "(reg:
                     5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals for regular files,
                     directories, symlinks, devices, and special files.  If any of value is 0, it
                     is completely omitted from the list.

              o      Number  of  created  files  is the count of how many "files" (generic sense)
                     were created (as opposed to updated).  The total count will be followed by a
                     list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).

              o      Number  of  deleted  files  is the count of how many "files" (generic sense)
                     were created (as opposed to updated).  The total count will be followed by a
                     list  of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line
                     is only output if deletions are in effect, and only if protocol 31 is  being
                     used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

              o      Number  of  regular files transferred is the count of normal files that were
                     updated via rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm, which does not  include  dirs,
                     symlinks,  etc.   Note  that  rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in  the  transfer.   This
                     does  not  count any size for directories or special files, but does include
                     the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the
                     transferred files.

              o      Literal  data  is  how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to the
                     receiver for it to recreate the updated files.

              o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when  recreating  the
                     updated files.

              o      File  list size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it to
                     the receiver.  This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due
                     to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File  list  generation  time  is the number of seconds that the sender spent
                     creating the file list.  This requires a modern rsync on  the  sending  side
                     for this to be present.

              o      File  list  transfer  time  is  the  number of seconds that the sender spent
                     sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes  that  rsync  sent  from  the
                     client side to the server side.

              o      Total  bytes  received  is  the  count  of  all non-message bytes that rsync
                     received by the client side from the server side.  "Non-message" bytes means
                     that  we don’t count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to
                     us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the  output  instead
              of  trying  to test them to see if they’re valid in the current locale and escaping
              the invalid ones.  All control characters (but  never  tabs)  are  always  escaped,
              regardless of this option’s setting.

              The  escape  idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a
              hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits.  For example, a newline would  output
              as  "\#012".  A literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is
              followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  There are 3 possible levels:   (1)
              output  numbers  with a separator between each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a
              period, depending on if the decimal point is represented by a period or  a  comma);
              (2)  output  numbers  in units of 1000 (with a character suffix for larger units --
              see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

              The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases the level by  one.
              You  can  take  the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by specifing
              the --no-human-readable (--no-h) option.

              The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K  (kilo),  M  (mega),  G
              (giga),  or  T  (tera).   For example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in
              level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point).

              Backward compatibility note:  versions of rsync  prior  to  3.1.0  do  not  support
              human-readable  level  1, and they default to level 0.  Thus, specifying one or two
              -h options will behave in a comparable manner in old and new versions  as  long  as
              you  didn’t  specify  a  --no-h  option  prior  to one or more -h options.  See the
              --list-only option for one difference.

              By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file  if  the  transfer  is
              interrupted.  In  some  circumstances  it  is  more  desirable  to  keep  partially
              transferred files. Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial  file
              which should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

              A  better  way  to keep partial files than the --partial option is to specify a DIR
              that will be used to hold the partial data  (instead  of  writing  it  out  to  the
              destination  file).   On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir
              as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it  has
              served its purpose.

              Note  that  if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir file that is
              found for a file that is being updated will  simply  be  removed  (since  rsync  is
              sending files without using rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync  will  create  the  DIR  if it is missing (just the last dir -- not the whole
              path).    This   makes   it   easy   to   use   a   relative    path    (such    as
              "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to  have rsync create the partial-directory in the
              destination file’s directory when needed, and then remove it again when the partial
              file is deleted.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at
              the end of all your existing excludes.   This  will  prevent  the  sending  of  any
              partial-dir  files  that  may  exist on the sending side, and will also prevent the
              untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the  receiving  side.   An  example:  the
              above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at
              the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your  own  exclude  rules,  you  may  need  to  add  your  own
              exclude/hide/protect  rule  for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added rule may
              be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or (2)  you  may  wish  to  override
              rsync’s  exclude  choice.   For  instance,  if  you want to make rsync clean-up any
              left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should specify  --delete-after
              and  add  a  "risk"  filter  rule,  e.g.   -f  'R  .rsync-partial/'.   (Avoid using
              --delete-before or --delete-during unless you don’t need rsync to use  any  of  the
              left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT:  the  --partial-dir  should  not  be  writable by other users or it is a
              security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment  variable.
              Setting  this in the environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but rather
              it affects where partial files go  when  --partial  is  specified.   For  instance,
              instead  of  using  --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp  along  with --progress, you could set
              RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then just use the -P option to
              turn  on  the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times that
              the --partial option does  not  look  for  this  environment  value  are  (1)  when
              --inplace  was  specified  (since  --inplace conflicts with --partial-dir), and (2)
              when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

              For the purposes of the daemon-config’s  "refuse  options"  setting,  --partial-dir
              does not imply --partial.  This is so that a refusal of the --partial option can be
              used to disallow the overwriting of destination  files  with  a  partial  transfer,
              while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory
              until the end of the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed  into  place
              in rapid succession.  This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more
              atomic.  By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"  in  each
              file’s  destination  directory,  but  if you’ve specified the --partial-dir option,
              that directory will be used instead.  See the comments in the --partial-dir section
              for  a  discussion of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be  lying
              around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

              This  option  uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file transferred)
              and also requires enough  free  disk  space  on  the  receiving  side  to  hold  an
              additional  copy  of  all  the updated files.  Note also that you should not use an
              absolute path to --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files in
              the  transfer  having the same name (since all the updated files will be put into a
              single directory if the path is absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in  the
              hierarchy  (since  the  delayed  updates  will  fail  if they can’t be renamed into

              See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in  the  "support"  subdir  for  an  update
              algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid  of  empty  directories  from  the
              file-list,  including nested directories that have no non-directory children.  This
              is useful for avoiding the creation of a bunch  of  useless  directories  when  the
              sending    rsync   is   recursively   scanning   a   hierarchy   of   files   using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size option, does not affect
              what  goes  into  the file list, and thus does not leave directories empty, even if
              none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule.

              Because the file-list is actually being  pruned,  this  option  also  affects  what
              directories  get  deleted  when  a  delete  is  active.  However, keep in mind that
              excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from being deleted due to
              an  exclude  both  hiding  source  files and protecting destination files.  See the
              perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You can prevent the pruning of certain empty  directories  from  the  file-list  by
              using  a  global "protect" filter.  For instance, this option would ensure that the
              directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:

              --filter ’protect emptydir/’

              Here’s an example that copies all .pdf files in  a  hierarchy,  only  creating  the
              necessary  destination  directories  to  hold  the .pdf files, and ensures that any
              superfluous files and directories in the destination are  removed  (note  the  hide
              filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include=’*.pdf’ -f ’hide,! */’ src/ dest

              If  you  didn’t want to remove superfluous destination files, the more time-honored
              options  of  "--include='*/'  --exclude='*'"  would  work  fine  in  place  of  the
              hide-filter (if that is more natural to you).

              This  option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer.
              This gives a bored user something to watch.  With a modern rsync this is  the  same
              as specifying --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for those
              info flags takes precedence (e.g. "--info=flist0 --progress").

              While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line  that  looks
              like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender’s
              file, which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes  per  second,  and
              the  transfer  will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the

              These statistics can be misleading if rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm is  in  use.
              For example, if the sender’s file consists of the basis file followed by additional
              data, the reported rate will probably drop dramatically when the receiver  gets  to
              the  literal  data,  and the transfer will probably take much longer to finish than
              the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file.

              When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line  with  a  summary
              line that looks like this:

                    1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

              In  this  example,  the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate of
              transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that
              it  took  to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current
              rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check  (to  see  if
              they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list.

              In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won’t know the total number of files in the
              file-list until it reaches the ends of the scan, but since it  starts  to  transfer
              files  during  the  scan,  it  will  display  a  line  with  the text "ir-chk" (for
              incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it knows  the
              full  size  of  the  list,  at which point it will switch to using "to-chk".  Thus,
              seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count of files in  the  file  list  is
              still  going  to  increase (and each time it does, the count of files left to check
              will increase by the number of the files added to the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its purpose  is  to  make  it
              much  easier  to  specify  these  two  options  for  a  long  transfer  that may be

              There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics based on the  whole
              transfer,  rather  than  individual  files.   Use  this  flag  without outputting a
              filename (e.g. avoid -v or specify  --info=name0)  if  you  want  to  see  how  the
              transfer  is  doing  without  scrolling the screen with a lot of names.  (You don’t
              need to specify the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.)

              This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an rsync  daemon  via  a
              file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The file should contain just the password
              on the first line (all other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error  if
              FILE is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a non-root-owned file.

              This  option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to
              learn how to do that, consult the remote shell’s documentation.  When accessing  an
              rsync  daemon  using  a  remote shell as the transport, this option only comes into
              effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if  you  have  also
              specified a password in the daemon’s config file).

              This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred.  This
              option is inferred if there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so
              its  main uses are: (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
              a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to  specify  more  than  one  source  arg
              (note:  be  sure  to include the destination).  Caution: keep in mind that a source
              arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so  it  is  never
              safe to try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Starting  with  rsync  3.1.0,  the  sizes output by --list-only are affected by the
              --human-readable option.  By default they will contain digit separators, but higher
              levels of readability will output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the
              column width for the size output has increased from 11 to  14  characters  for  all
              human-readable  levels.   Use  --no-h if you want just digits in the sizes, and the
              old column width of 11 characters.

              Compatibility note:  when requesting a remote listing of files from an  rsync  that
              is  version  2.6.3  or  older,  you  may  encounter  an  error  if  you  ask  for a
              non-recursive listing.  This is because a file listing implies  the  --dirs  option
              w/o  --recursive,  and older rsyncs don’t have that option.  To avoid this problem,
              either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don’t  need  to  expand  a  directory’s
              content),  or  turn  on  recursion  and  exclude  the content of subdirectories: -r

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data sent  over
              the  socket,  specified in units per second.  The RATE value can be suffixed with a
              string to indicate  a  size  multiplier,  and  may  be  a  fractional  value  (e.g.
              "--bwlimit=1.5m").   If  no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to be in
              units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had been  appended).   See  the  --max-size
              option  for  a description of all the available suffixes. A value of zero specifies
              no limit.

              For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to  the  nearest
              KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible.

              Rsync  writes  data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the size
              of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer rate at the
              requested  limit.   Some "burstiness" may be seen where rsync writes out a block of
              data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

              Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may not be an accurate
              reflection on how fast the data is being sent.  This is because some files can show
              up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up
              as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer occurs.  This may be fixed in a
              future version.

              Record a file that can later be  applied  to  another  identical  destination  with
              --read-batch.   See   the   "BATCH   MODE"   section  for  details,  and  also  the
              --only-write-batch option.

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system
              when  creating  the  batch.  This lets you transport the changes to the destination
              system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media:  if
              this  media  fills  to  capacity before the end of the transfer, you can just apply
              that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the whole process  to  get  the
              rest  of  the  changes  (as  long as you don’t mind a partially updated destination
              system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing  changes  to  a  remote  system
              because  this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender into the batch
              file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender
              is remote, and thus can’t write the batch).

              Apply  all  of  the  changes  stored  in  FILE,  a  file  previously  generated  by
              --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will be read from standard input.  See
              the "BATCH MODE" section for details.

              Force  an  older  protocol version to be used.  This is useful for creating a batch
              file that is compatible with an older version of rsync.   For  instance,  if  rsync
              2.6.4  is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be
              used to run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28"  when  creating
              the  batch  file  to  force the older protocol version to be used in the batch file
              (assuming you can’t upgrade the rsync on the reading system).

              Rsync can convert filenames between character sets  using  this  option.   Using  a
              CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the default character-set via the locale
              setting.  Alternately, you can fully specify what conversion  to  do  by  giving  a
              local  and a remote charset separated by a comma in the order --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE,
              e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order ensures that the option will stay the same
              whether  you’re  pushing  or  pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can  specify  either
              --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-"  to  turn  off  any  conversion.   The  default
              setting  of  this  option  is  site-specific,  and  can  also  be  affected via the
              RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For a list of what charset names your local iconv library  supports,  you  can  run
              "iconv --list".

              If  you  specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will translate the filenames
              you specify on the command-line that are being sent to the remote host.   See  also
              the --files-from option.

              Note  that  rsync  does  not  do any conversion of names in filter files (including
              include/exclude files).  It is up to you to ensure that you’re specifying  matching
              rules  that can match on both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify
              extra include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two sides that
              need to be accounted for.

              When  you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the daemon uses
              the charset specified in its "charset" configuration parameter  regardless  of  the
              remote  charset  you  actually  pass.   Thus, you may feel free to specify just the
              local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This only  affects  sockets
              that  rsync  has  direct  control  over,  such as the outgoing socket when directly
              contacting an rsync daemon.  See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

              If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the  --ipv6  option  will  have  no
              effect.  The --version output will tell you if this is the case.

              Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum seed is included in
              each block and MD4 file checksum calculation (the more modern  MD5  file  checksums
              don’t  use  a  seed).   By default the checksum seed is generated by the server and
              defaults to the current time() .  This option is used to set  a  specific  checksum
              seed,  which is useful for applications that want repeatable block checksums, or in
              the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes
              rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.


       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This  tells  rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you start running may
              be accessed using an rsync client using the  host::module  or  rsync://host/module/

              If  standard  input  is  a  socket  then rsync will assume that it is being run via
              inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and become  a  background
              daemon.  The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by
              a client and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page  for
              more details.

              By  default  rsync  will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the
              --daemon option.  The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP  address
              (or  hostname) to bind to.  This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with
              the --config option.  See also the  "address"  global  option  in  the  rsyncd.conf

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data the daemon
              sends over the socket.  The client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but
              no larger value will be allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for
              some extra details.

              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This  is  only  relevant
              when  --daemon  is specified.  The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is
              running over a remote shell program and the remote user is not the  super-user;  in
              that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).

       -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
              This  option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when starting up rsync in
              daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding the parameter at the  end  of  the  global
              settings  prior  to  the  first  module’s  definition.   The parameter names can be
              specified without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

                  rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/

              When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync  to  not  detach  itself  and
              become  a background process.  This option is required when running as a service on
              Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync  is  supervised  by  a  program  such  as
              daemontools  or  AIX’s System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recommended
              when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no effect if rsync is run from
              inetd or sshd.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than
              the default of 873.  See also the "port" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of  using
              the "log file" setting in the config file.

              This  option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of using
              the "log format" setting in the config file.  It also  enables  "transfer  logging"
              unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This  overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its  startup
              phase.   After the client connects, the daemon’s verbosity level will be controlled
              by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module’s
              config section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells  rsync  to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync
              daemon will use to listen for connections.  One of these options may be required in
              older  versions  of  Linux  to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an
              "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try  specifying
              --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              If  rsync  was  complied  without  support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no
              effect.  The --version output will tell you if this is the case.

       -h, --help
              When specified after --daemon, print a  short  help  page  describing  the  options
              available for starting an rsync daemon.


       The  filter  rules  allow  for flexible selection of which files to transfer (include) and
       which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either directly specify include/exclude patterns
       or  they  specify a way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a

       As the list of files/directories to transfer is  built,  rsync  checks  each  name  to  be
       transferred  against  the list of include/exclude patterns in turn, and the first matching
       pattern is acted on:  if it is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is  an
       include  pattern  then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then
       the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified  on  the  command-line.   Filter
       rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below.  If you
       use a short-named rule, the ’,’ separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is  optional.   The
       PATTERN  or  FILENAME that follows (when present) must come after either a single space or
       an underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment lines  that
       start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of rule
       parsing as described above  --  they  only  allow  the  specification  of  include/exclude
       patterns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are
       read from a file).  If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space)  or  "+  "  (plus,
       space),  then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for
       an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A --filter option,  on  the  other  hand,
       must always contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note  also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each.
       To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use  the  merge-file
       syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from/--exclude-from options.


       You  can  include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-", etc. filter
       rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The include/exclude  rules  each
       specify  a  pattern  that  is  matched against the names of the files that are going to be
       transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to  a  particular  spot  in  the
              hierarchy  of files, otherwise it is matched against the end of the pathname.  This
              is similar to a leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match  a  name
              of  "foo"  at  either  the  "root  of  the  transfer" (for a global rule) or in the
              merge-file’s directory (for a per-directory  rule).   An  unqualified  "foo"  would
              match  a  name  of  "foo"  anywhere  in  the  tree because the algorithm is applied
              recursively from the top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn  at
              being  the  end  of the filename.  Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any
              point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub".  See
              the  section  on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to
              specify a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a  directory,  not  a  regular
              file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking
              if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: ’*’, ’?’, and ’[’ .

       o      a ’*’ matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use ’**’ to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a ’?’ matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a ’[’ introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character,  but
              it is matched literally when no wildcards are present.  This means that there is an
              extra level of backslash  removal  when  a  pattern  contains  wildcard  characters
              compared  to  a  pattern  that  has  none.  e.g. if you add a wildcard to "foo\bar"
              (which matches the backslash) you would need to use "foo\\bar*" to avoid  the  "\b"
              becoming just "b".

       o      if  the  pattern  contains  a  /  (not counting a trailing /) or a "**", then it is
              matched against the full  pathname,  including  any  leading  directories.  If  the
              pattern  doesn’t  contain  a / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final
              component of the filename.  (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively  so
              "full  filename"  can actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory
              on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been
              specified)   and  everything  in  the  directory  (as  if  "dir_name/**"  had  been
              specified).  This behavior was added in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a),  every  subdir
       component  of every path is visited left to right, with each directory having a chance for
       exclusion  before  its  content.   In  this  way  include/exclude  patterns  are   applied
       recursively  to  the  pathname  of  each  node  in the filesystem’s tree (those inside the
       transfer).  The exclude patterns short-circuit the  directory  traversal  stage  as  rsync
       finds the files to send.

       For instance, to include "/foo/bar/baz", the directories "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must not be
       excluded.  Excluding one of those parent  directories  prevents  the  examination  of  its
       content,  cutting  off  rsync’s  recursion  into those paths and rendering the include for
       "/foo/bar/baz" ineffectual (since rsync can’t match something it never sees in the cut-off
       section of the directory hierarchy).

       The  concept path exclusion is particularly important when using a trailing ’*’ rule.  For
       instance, this won’t work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the ’*’ rule, so rsync never
       visits  any of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask
       for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere  before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another
       solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.
       For instance, this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "-  /foo"  would  exclude  a  file  (or  directory)  named foo in the transfer-root

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is  at  two  levels  below  a
              directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar"  would  exclude  any  file  named  bar  two or more levels below a
              directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories  and  C
              source files but nothing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination  of  "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the foo
              directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it  would
              be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A  / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute
              pathname of the current item.  For example,  "-/  /etc/passwd"  would  exclude  the
              passwd  file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and
              "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even
              if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A  !  specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to
              match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as
              excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg should follow.

       o      An  s  is  used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side.  When a rule
              affects the sending side, it prevents files from being transferred.  The default is
              for  a  rule  to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which
              case default rules become sender-side only.  See also the hide  (H)  and  show  (S)
              rules, which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side.  When a rule
              affects the receiving side, it prevents  files  from  being  deleted.   See  the  s
              modifier  for more info.  See also the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an
              alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in  directories
              that  are  being deleted.  For instance, the -C option’s default rules that exclude
              things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked  as  perishable,  and  will  not  prevent  a
              directory that was removed on the source from being deleted on the destination.

       o      An x indicates that a rule affects xattr names in xattr copy/delete operations (and
              is thus ignored when matching file/dir  names).  If  no  xattr-matching  rules  are
              specified, a default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs option).


       You  can  merge  whole  files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a
       dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance (’.’) and per-directory  (’:’).   A
       single-instance  merge  file  is  read  one  time, and its rules are incorporated into the
       filter list in the place of the "." rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will  scan
       every  directory  that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file
       exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-directory rule files  must  be
       created  on  the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned for the
       available files to transfer.  These rule files may also need  to  be  transferred  to  the
       receiving  side if you want them to affect what files don’t get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY
       RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              . /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no  other
              rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no other
              rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-compatible  manner.
              This  turns on ’n’, ’w’, and ’-’, but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be
              specified.  If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.  "dir-merge,e  .rules"
              is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.

       o      A  w  specifies  that  the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal
              line-splitting.  This also turns off comments.  Note: the space that separates  the
              prefix  from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
              (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn’t also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order
              to  have  the  rules that are read in from the file default to having that modifier
              set (except for the  !  modifier,  which  would  not  be  useful).   For  instance,
              "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while
              "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory  rules  apply
              only  on  the sending side.  If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s
              or r modifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify  sides  (via  a
              modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules  are  inherited  in  all  subdirectories  of  the directory where the
       merge-file was found unless the ’n’ modifier was  used.   Each  subdirectory’s  rules  are
       prefixed  to  the  inherited  per-directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest
       rules a higher priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge  rules  are
       grouped  together  in  the  spot  where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to
       override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified  earlier  in  the  list  of  global
       rules.   When  the  list-clearing  rule  ("!")  is read from a per-directory file, it only
       clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file  from  being  inherited  is  to
       anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file are relative
       to the merge-file’s directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in  the
       directory where the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here’s an example filter file which you’d specify via --filter=". file":

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This  will  merge  the  contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the
       list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory  filter  file.   All  rules
       read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a
       leading slash matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory  of  the
       first  transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point to
       the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file.   For  instance,  here  is  a
       common filter (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the root
       down through the parent directory of the  transfer  prior  to  the  start  of  the  normal
       directory  scan  of  the  file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.
       (Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module’s "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and  "/src"  before  the
       normal  scan  begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last
       command avoids the parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the
       rule  ":C",  which  creates  a  dir-merge  of  the  .cvsignore  file,  but  parsed  in   a
       CVS-compatible  manner.   You can use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option’s
       inclusion of the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting  the
       ":C"  wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would add the dir-merge
       rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of  all  your  other  rules  (giving  it  a  lower
       priority than your command-line rules).  For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
              + foo.o
              - *.old
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge all the per-directory
       .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than at  the  end.   This  allows  their
       dir-specific  rules to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient
       to all your rules.  To affect the other CVS  exclude  rules  (i.e.  the  default  list  of
       exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should omit
       the -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into  your  filter  rules;  e.g.


       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced
       in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current" list is either the global list of rules
       (if  the  rule  is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory
       rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to  clear
       out the parent’s rules).


       As  mentioned  earlier,  global  include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the
       transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are anchored  at  the  merge-file’s
       directory).   If  you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from
       sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be  duplicated  in  the
       destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that start with a / match.

       Because  the  matching  is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a
       source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use
       in  your  matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the
       destination host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let’s say that we  want  to  match  two  source  files,  one  with  an  absolute  path  of
       "/home/me/foo/bar",  and  one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".  Here is how the various
       command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just  look  at  the  output  when
       using  --verbose  and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if you’re not
       yet ready to copy any files).


       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you
       can  feel  free  to exclude the merge files themselves without affecting the transfer.  To
       make this easy, the ’e’ modifier  adds  this  exclude  for  you,  as  seen  in  these  two
       equivalent commands:

              rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if  you  want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be
       excluded from being deleted, you’ll need to be sure that the  receiving  side  knows  what
       files  to  exclude.   The  easiest  way is to include the per-directory merge files in the
       transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the
       same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you’ll need to either specify
       some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you’ll need to maintain
       your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this
       (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=’: .rules’ --filter=’. /my/extra.rules’
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer,  but  (on
       the  sending  side)  the  rules  are subservient to the rules merged from the .rules files
       because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side  is  excluding  the  .rsync-filter  files  from  the
       transfer,  but  we want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on
       the receiving side.  To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files
       (so  that  they don’t get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest


       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems. Suppose
       one  has  a  tree which is replicated on a number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes have
       been made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other  hosts.
       In  order  to  do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to apply
       the changes made to the source tree to one of  the  destination  trees.   The  write-batch
       option  causes  the  rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to
       repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data
       block  generation  more  than  once  when  updating  multiple destination trees. Multicast
       transport protocols can be used to transfer the batch update files  in  parallel  to  many
       hosts at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch
       option, specifying the name of the same batch  file,  and  the  destination  tree.   Rsync
       updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file.

       For  your  convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option is used:
       it will be named the same as the  batch  file  with  ".sh"  appended.   This  script  file
       contains  a  command-line  suitable  for  updating a destination tree using the associated
       batch file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell,  optionally  passing
       in  an  alternate  destination  tree  pathname  which is then used instead of the original
       destination path.  This is useful when the destination  tree  path  on  the  current  host
       differs from the one used to create the batch file.


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is  used  to  update  /adest/dir/  from  /source/dir/ and the
       information to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and "".  The  host  "remote"
       is  then  updated  with  the  batched  data  going  into  the  directory  /bdest/dir.  The
       differences between the two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in  how  you
       deal with batches:

       o      The  first  example shows that the initial copy doesn’t have to be local -- you can
              push or pull data to/from a remote host using either  the  remote-shell  syntax  or
              rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

       o      The  first  example  uses  the created "" file to get the right rsync options
              when running the read-batch command on the remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that the  batch  file
              doesn’t  need  to  be  copied to the remote machine first.  This example avoids the
     script because it needed to use a  modified  --read-batch  option,  but  you
              could  edit  the  script file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure that no
              other option is trying to  use  standard  input,  such  as  the  "--exclude-from=-"


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be identical to
       the destination tree that was used to create the batch update fileset.  When a  difference
       between  the destination trees is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning
       (if the file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update  may  be  attempted  and
       then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an error.  This means that it
       should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation if the command got  interrupted.   If  you
       wish  to force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file’s size and
       date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an  error  occurs,  the  destination
       tree will probably be in a partially updated state. In that case, rsync can be used in its
       regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new  as  the  one  used  to
       generate  the  batch  file.   Rsync  will die with an error if the protocol version in the
       batch file is too new for the batch-reading rsync to  handle.   See  also  the  --protocol
       option  for a way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3,  so  mixing  versions
       older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options to match the data
       in the batch file if you didn’t set them to the same as the batch-writing command.   Other
       options  can (and should) be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped, and  the  --filter/--include/--exclude  options  are  not  needed
       unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The code that creates the file transforms any filter/include/exclude options into
       a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced
       user  can use this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by --delete
       is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy
       way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the batched data.

       The  original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses a new


       Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic  link  in  the  source

       By  default,  symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message "skipping non-regular"
       file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified,  then  symlinks  are  recreated  with  the  same  target  on  the
       destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links  is  specified,  then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying their referent,
       rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic  links.   An  example  where  this
       might  be  used  is  a web site mirror that wishes to ensure that the rsync module that is
       copied does not include symbolic links to /etc/passwd in the public section of  the  site.
       Using  --copy-unsafe-links  will cause any links to be copied as the file they point to on
       the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe links  to  be  omitted  altogether.
       (Note that you must specify --links for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic  links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks (start with /), empty,
       or if they contain enough ".." components to ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here’s a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list  is  in  order  of
       precedence,  so if your combination of options isn’t mentioned, use the first line that is
       a complete subset of your options:

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any other  options  to

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe symlinks.

              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe symlinks.

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.


       rsync  occasionally  produces  error messages that may seem a little cryptic. The one that
       seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell facility  producing
       unwanted  garbage on the stream that rsync is using for its transport. The way to diagnose
       this problem is to run your remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat  should  be  a  zero
       length  file.  If  you  are getting the above error from rsync then you will probably find
       that out.dat contains some text or data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is
       producing  it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts (such
       as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the  -vv  option.
       At  this  level  of  verbosity  rsync  will  show  why each individual file is included or


       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a
              platform  that cannot support them; or an option was specified that is supported by
              the client and not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection


              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore  patterns  in  .cvsignore
              files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more details.

              Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment variable. (First supported
              in 3.0.0.)

              Specify a "1" if you want the --old-args option to be enabled by default, a "2" (or
              more)  if  you want it to be enabled in the option-repeated state, or a "0" to make
              sure that it is disabled by default. When this environment variable  is  set  to  a
              non-zero value, it supersedes the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS variable.

              This  variable  is  ignored  if  --old-args,  --no-old-args,  or  --protect-args is
              specified on the command line.

              Specify a non-zero numeric value if  you  want  the  --protect-args  option  to  be
              enabled  by  default,  or a zero value to make sure that it is disabled by default.
              (First supported in 3.1.0.)

              This variable is ignored if --protect-args,  --no-protect-args,  or  --old-args  is
              specified on the command line.

              This variable is ignored if RSYNC_OLD_ARGS is set to a non-zero value.

              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell used as
              the transport for rsync.  Command line options  are  permitted  after  the  command
              name, just as in the -e option.

              The  RSYNC_PROXY  environment  variable allows you to redirect your rsync client to
              use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to  a
              hostname:port pair.

              Setting  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the  required password allows you to run authenticated
              rsync connections to an rsync daemon without user intervention. Note that this does
              not  supply  a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do
              that, consult the remote shell’s documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME  environment  variables  are  used  to  determine  the  default
              username  sent  to  an  rsync  daemon.  If neither is set, the username defaults to

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user’s default .cvsignore file.


       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf




       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.  See the comments
       on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at


       This man page is current for version 3.1.3 of rsync.


       The  options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be typed
       by a user under normal circumstances.  Some awareness of these options may  be  needed  in
       certain  scenarios,  such  as  when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.
       For instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an example script  named
       rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a restricted ssh login.


       rsync  is  distributed  under  the  GNU  General Public License.  See the file COPYING for

       A WEB site is available at   The  site  includes  an  FAQ-O-Matic
       which may cover questions unanswered by this manual page.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is

       We  would  be  delighted  to  hear  from you if you like this program.  Please contact the
       mailing-list at

       This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-loup  Gailly  and
       Mark Adler.


       Special  thanks  go  out  to:  John  Van  Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W. Terpstra, David
       Dykstra, Jos Backus,  Sebastian  Krahmer,  Martin  Pool,  and  our  gone-but-not-forgotten
       compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell and David Bell.
       I’ve probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.


       rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and  Paul  Mackerras.   Many  people  have
       later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at

                                           28 Jan 2018                                   rsync(1)